Human Breast Milk A Review On Its Composition And Bioactivity Pdf
File Name: human breast milk a review on its composition and bioactivity .zip
Crack cocaine is a psychotropic and neurotoxic drug with high prevalence of consumption, considerate a public health problem and identified as risk factors to human health.
- Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity
- Human Milk Composition and Health Outcomes in Children
- Breast Milk Macronutrients in Relation to Infants’ Anthropometric Measures
Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity
Human milk is considered to be the ideal food for infants. Accurate, representative, and up-to-date nutrient composition data of human milk are crucial for the management of infant feeding, assessment of infant and maternal nutritional needs, and as a guide for developing infant formula. Nonetheless, these resources all suffer major drawbacks, such as being outdated, incomplete profiles, limited sources of data, and uncertain data quality.
Furthermore, no nutrient profile was developed specifically for the US population. The purposes of this review were to summarize the current knowledge of human milk nutrient composition from studies conducted in the United States and Canada, and to identify the knowledge gaps and research needs.
The literature review was conducted to cover the years —, and 28 research papers were found containing original data on macronutrients and micronutrients. Most of these 28 studies were published before and mainly examined samples from small groups of generally healthy lactating women. The experimental designs, including sampling, storage, and analytic methods, varied substantially between the different studies.
Data of several components from these 28 studies showed some consistency for 1—6 mo postpartum, especially for protein, fat, lactose, energy, and certain minerals e.
The data for 7—12 mo postpartum and for other nutrients are very scarce. Comprehensive studies are required to provide current and complete nutrient information on human milk in the United States. Human milk is considered to be the ideal source of nutrition for infants.
Breastfeeding confers unique nutritional and nonnutritional benefits to both the infant and the lactating mother 3. In addition to supporting normal growth and development, human milk offers numerous physiologic advantages through various functional components 4. Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher scores on tests of neurodevelopment and cognition in later life 5 , 6. This project intended to respond to the challenge of developing and implementing US-driven, evidence-based health and nutrition promotion programs for this age group 7.
From a nutritional perspective, infancy is a critical and vulnerable period. Because of immaturity in tissues and organs involved in nutrient metabolism, infants display a narrow tolerance to deviations in nutrient intakes 8. Unlike commercial infant formula, which is standardized and tightly regulated, human milk is a very dynamic, constantly changing biological fluid.
Therefore, accurate and up-to-date nutrient composition data and the factors that influence them are especially critical for the management of infant feeding and assessment of infant nutritional needs. The composition of human milk changes constantly throughout the entire lactation period 2 , 9. The colostrum and transitional milk in early lactation change rapidly and are distinct in many ways from mature milk.
Mature milk remains relatively similar in composition with subtle changes over the course of lactation. The nutrient composition is also different between term and preterm human milk Ethnicity, diet, and environment are known to be important factors influencing human milk composition.
Some micronutrients can vary with nutritional status; and environmental toxins would differ based on the exposure of region-specific environmental chemicals. Therefore, understanding the human milk composition in one country or region, rather than combining international data, would be more relevant and provide useful information in assessing the infant and maternal nutritional need and supporting policy making of that specific country or region.
For this current review, the efforts were restricted to term mature milk. The purposes of this review were to summarize the current knowledge of human milk nutrient composition studies conducted in the United States and Canada and to support an update to the USDA Food Data System for human milk with accurate, up-to-date, representative, and complete data gathered via valid analytic techniques.
This review is also intended to identify the research questions and provide information for developing a robust experimental design for the proposed sampling and analysis of human milk. All these profiles share some major drawbacks, the first of which is their outdated sources. Yet, it has still been widely used for various purposes and cited even in the most recently published books In 1 book, the nutrient profiles of human milk were generated from data published between and Second, the available data used to create the nutrient profiles came from very limited sources, or the sources were not clearly described In some cases, values of certain nutrients came from only one or very few references Third, there was no data quality evaluation.
The data used to develop the aforementioned nutrient profiles were generated by different researchers, over a long period of time, for different populations and with different experimental designs and analytic methods. All of these factors would undoubtedly affect the quality of the data. Fourth, no statistical analyses of variability e. Therefore, the sample variability could not be determined.
Finally, none of the profiles were developed specifically for the US population. To create a US-specific human-milk nutrient profile, the data must be carefully examined to ensure they represent the US population. Several excellent reviews have addressed human milk composition over the last 2 decades 3 , 8—10 , 13 , 18— Nonetheless, very few of them summarized the traditional nutrient composition data and discussed the quality of these data. Many factors need to be considered when discussing the quality of food composition databases.
Five categories sampling plan, number of samples, sample handling, analytic method, and analytic quality control must be carefully assessed to ensure data quality for the food composition database development. Although these data quality criteria were initially developed for foods and food products, the same principles can be applied to determine the quality of human milk nutrient data.
However, owing to the uniqueness of human milk, the 5 major categories are examined next specifically. One of the most important characteristics of a good food composition database is that the data effectively represent the foods consumed by the population that the database intends to cover.
The sampling plan should be designed to fulfill this purpose. The composition of human milk is influenced by many factors. The main factors are discussed here to provide a basis for evaluating the existing data and designing appropriate sampling plans for future studies. Many maternal factors are known to influence human milk nutrient composition including stage of lactation, genetic background of the mother, parity, age, and health status.
Human lactation stage can be divided into 3 major phases: colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Colostrum is rich in immunologic components and contains relatively low concentrations of lactose but higher protein content, suggesting its important functions to be immunologic and trophic besides nutritional Transitional milk shares some of the characteristics of colostrum but represents a period of accelerated milk production to support the infant's nutritional and developmental needs for rapid growth.
Mature milk is relatively similar to transitional milk, but the changes are not as remarkable as in the early weeks 9 , The influence of lactation stage differs for different nutrients. For example, total protein and lipids show a gradual decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation. Whereas the lactose is initially low in colostrum and transitional milk, it then increases in mature milk and remains at the same levels for up to 6 mo In addition to the alterations of total protein, protein composition also changes.
Milks mainly contain 2 types of protein: caseins and whey proteins. Because the amino acid compositions differ between caseins and whey proteins, the type and content of the amino acids of human milk in turn vary during lactation. Genetic factors of lactating women have been shown to influence human milk composition, which at least partly explains the considerable interindividual variations in milk composition.
All physiologic and biochemical events that influence the composition of plasma may potentially affect the composition of milk. Hormones or other factors that are capable of influencing biosynthetic processes in the mammary gland can also modify the milk composition For example, genetic variants of fatty acid desaturase were associated with variability of n—6, n—3, and DHA in human milk Another good example is the array of human milk oligosaccharides HMOs , which are believed to be genetically determined.
Different profiles of HMOs occur as a result of specific transferase enzymes expressed in the mammary epithelial cells For instance, human milk fucosylated oligosaccharide synthesis is controlled by the same fucosyltransferase genes FUT2 and FUT3 that control secretor and Lewis blood group types As few as 23 and as many as different oligosaccharides were found in the milk from randomly selected mothers Infant need could be a driving force of the quantity and quality of human milk, as its composition changes in response to the infant's age and other characteristics.
Human milk from women delivering prematurely supplies more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared with milk from women delivering at term 30 , Another important factor is the infant's gender.
In a recent study, Fujita et al. In Northern Kenya, the economically sufficient mothers produced more milk fat for sons than for daughters 2. This finding was later confirmed by a study in other mammals, i. However, how the programming is regulated, and how it affects human milk nutrient composition, are yet to be determined. A key element defining lactation performance is the total amount of milk produced. The volume of milk transferred to the infant affects the infant's nutrient intake and the mother's nutrient requirements The milk volume could also affect the milk composition.
For example, milk protein concentration was negatively related to milk volume at 6 and 9 mo postpartum, whereas milk lactose concentration was positively related to milk volume at 6 and 9 mo postpartum In another study, an association between weaning and significant changes in milk composition was observed.
Human milk composition may be influenced by the parity and age of lactating women. Protein concentration was found to be the highest in the milk of mothers 20—30 y old In a study to investigate the influence of diet and maternal parity on the fatty acid composition of mature milk in rural Gambian mothers, the authors found that the proportion of endogenous fatty acids was markedly reduced in the milk of mothers of very high parity. It was hypothesized that this represented an impairment of the ability to synthesize milk fatty acids de novo in these mothers A more recent study investigated the effects of smoking, mother's age, BMI, and parity on the lipids and proteins of human milk.
The study found that smoking was associated with lower milk lipid and protein concentrations, the increase of parity number led to an increase in lipid concentration, and the overweight mothers showed lower milk protein content Carbohydrate content in mature milk was significantly higher in the older mothers group, and carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age The mother's health may also affect human milk composition, but this factor has not been well studied.
One of the most common health problems for Americans is the prevalence of obesity The prepregnancy obesity rate increased by an average of 0. A recent study compared many nutritional components of human milk between obese and lean lactating women. The results showed that the composition of human milk from obese women differed in fatty acids, certain vitamins, and carotenoid composition from that of the lean women. Differences in the lipid composition of human milk have long been described in maternal diseases known to affect fat metabolism such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and type I hyperlipoproteinemia Other diseases, such as allergic disease, also alter fatty acid profiles and eicosanoids Changes of fatty acid composition in human milk have also been observed in lactating mothers with cold-like syndrome Cholesterol content is generally tightly regulated and is not affected by maternal diet.
Human Milk Composition and Health Outcomes in Children
In some cases, when mothers are not able to breastfeed, an equivalent substitute is required. Nowadays, the best substitutes of the human breast milk are infant formulas. Different technological routes may be designed to produce infant formulas according to the main challenges: the compromise between food safety and heat treatment damage. This article aimed to review the current scientific knowledge about how heat treatment affects the macro and micronutrients of milk, extrapolating the expected effects on infant formulas. The covered topics were: The definition and composition of infant formulas, industrial methods of infant formulas production, the effects of heat treatment on milk macro and micronutrients. The World Health Organization WHO recommends that breastfeeding should be exclusive for the first six months of the neonate's life and then must be gradually supplemented with another diet Food and Agriculture Organization, ; Zou et al. Breast milk supplements the intrinsic deficiencies in newborns by providing immunological protection, preventing the onset of pathologies infections, allergies, malnutrition , and meeting their nutritional needs Blanchard et al.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Request full-text PDF.
Breast Milk Macronutrients in Relation to Infants’ Anthropometric Measures
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Breast milk is considered the ideal and preferred feeding for all infants through the first 4—6 months of life. It provides many short and long-term benefits to the infant and mother. In the absence of breastfeeding, expressed breast milk is the best way to provide nutrition.
Despite these widely recognized properties, breast-feeding represents an important mother-to-child transmission route of some viral infections. Different studies show that some flaviviruses can occasionally be detected in breast milk, but their transmission to the newborn is still controversial. Colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 39 healthy donors. The aqueous fractions were tested in vitro with specific antiviral assays and EVs and GAGs were derived and characterized.