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The Kestrel handheld weather station, manufactured by Nielsen-Kellerman, is an ideal choice for making bicycle-based weather observations due to the rapid response time of the temperature and pressure sensors reported as 1 s , which allow for observations of small-scale 1 km length scale features in the surface temperature field, the ability to easily On August 5, , a crew of fifteen of the United States Forest Service s elite airborne firefighters, the Smokejumpers, stepped into the sky above a remote forest fire in the Montana wilderness.
- Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals And Applications
- Whiteman, 2000 [book] Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals and Applications
- Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals and Applications [1sted.]0195132718, 9780195132717, 9780198030447
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Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals And Applications
Materials appearing in this book prepared by the authors as part of their official duties as U. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. David Whiteman. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1. Mountain climate. W48 Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications aims to heighten awareness and appreciation of the weather in mountainous areas by in- troducing the reader to the basic principles and concepts of mountain me- teorology and by discussing applications of these principles and concepts in natural resource management.
The reader will learn to recognize char- acteristic mountain weather patterns and events, to anticipate their evo- lution, and to evaluate their impact on planned activities. Two hundred and seventy-four figures, diagrams, and photographs, most in full color, support the text and promote a conceptual understanding of mountain meteorology. In the figures and in the text, observable indicators winds, temperature, clouds of atmospheric processes are emphasized to facili- tate the recognition of weather systems and events.
Mountain Meteorology will interest anyone who spends time in or near mountains and whose daily life, work, or recreational activities are af- fected by the weather.
It was written, however, to meet the specific needs of three U. Work on the book was initiated with the support of the USDA Forest Service to address the need for a training manual for aerial spraying operations in national forests. Support was also provided by the National Weather Service, which needed a reference and training book for their meteorologists, who forecast mountain weather for the general public, as well as for natural resource agencies responsible for air pollution investigations, forest fire and smoke management, aerial spraying, and other land management activities.
The U. Army also sup- ported the project because of its interest in aerosol dispersion in moun- tainous terrain and in training personnel to meet land management re- sponsibilities at army facilities in complex terrain. The mountains of North America provide most of the examples in- cluded in this text, although the principles behind the examples apply to mountainous regions around the world. Both English and metric units are usually used. The order in which the units are given varies and depends on the specific context.
Mathematical equations are provided in an appendix rather than in the main text. Throughout the book, "Points of Interest" expand on mountain weather topics, provide specific examples, or explore a closely related subject. These sections are identified by a colored background. Technical terms that may be new to readers are italicized and usually defined on first use. These terms, and many others, are included in a glossary at the end of the book.
An index assists the reader in quickly finding topics or geograph- ical place names of interest. Mountain Meteorology is divided into four parts. Part I chapters 1 and 2 discusses four factors that influence climate chapter 1 and describes the characteristic climates of the mountain areas of North America chap- ter 2. Part II chapters 3—9 sets the stage for the discussions of moun- tain wind systems and applications in parts III and IV by describing ba- sic weather elements and processes.
These chapters also highlight several mountain meteorology topics, including mountain clouds, mountain thunderstorms, and lightning safety. Part III chapters 10 and 11 focuses on mountain wind systems. The wind systems are key to understanding all types of mountain weather.
They affect the movement of fronts and air masses, the development of clouds and precipitation, and the daily and seasonal cycles of temperature and humidity in mountain areas. Chapter 10 focuses on the terrain-forced flows produced when air cur- rents approach a mountain barrier and are forced to flow over or around the barrier or through gaps in the barrier.
These flows connect the atmo- sphere within a mountain region to the larger scale winds aloft and can impact wildfires and atmospheric dispersion within the mountain massif. Chapter 11 discusses diurnal circulations that develop within mountain areas.
These circulations, caused by temperature contrasts within the mountain massif or between the mountain massif and the plains, occur regularly on fair weather days and are characteristic of the mountain en- vironment. Part IV chapters 12—14 applies the meteorological principles explained in the previous chapters to selected forest and land manage- ment practices and operations.
Chapter 12 discusses air pollution disper- sion. Chapter 13, written by Carl J. Gorski and Allen Farnsworth, dis- cusses fire weather and the management of smoke from prescribed fires and wildfires. Chapter 14, written by Harold W.
Thistle and John W. Barry, discusses aerial spraying of pest control agents, seeds, and fertil- izers.
Appendices provide key equations appendix A , tables for computa- tion of relative humidity appendix B , a compilation of source materials on meteorological monitoring and instrumentation appendix C , units conversion tables appendix D , computer programs for calculating theo- retical solar radiation on slopes appendix E , a list of additional reading materials appendix F , and a list of abbreviations used in meteorological codes appendix G.
I am deeply grateful to my wife, Johanna, whose encouragement, sup- port, and enthusiasm helped me reach a long-term goal that was set when we were exploring the Rocky Mountains together with our Colorado Mountain Club and ski patrol friends in high school. She was a true part- ner in completing this book. She edited and rewrote the manuscript nu- merous times, answering many organizational and formatting questions.
Her perspective as a nonmeteorologist and her training in grammar and language helped identify jargon and clarify the text. Helpful review comments came from many individuals, including W. Barchet, John W. Permission to reproduce copyrighted or original source materials was provided by. Board members were Harold Thistle, John W. I thank John W. Army for arranging the necessary funding. I also thank the U. Department of Energy for their support of my research programs in moun- tain meteorology over the last decade and the opportunity to collaborate with other federal agencies on this project.
Four Factors that Determine Climate 3 1. Latitude 3 1. Altitude 4 1. Continentality 7 1. Regional Circulations 7 2. Mountain Climates of North America 11 2. The Appalachians 13 2.
The Rocky Mountains 18 2. Between the Mountains Atmospheric Scales of Motion and Atmospheric Composition 25 3. Atmospheric Scales of Motion 25 3. Atmospheric Composition 26 4. Atmospheric Structure and the Earth's Boundary Layer 31 4.
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 31 4. Temperature 33 4. Atmospheric Stability 38 4. Pressure and Winds 49 5. Atmospheric Pressure 49 5. Winds 60 6. Air Masses and Fronts 73 6. Air Mass Source Regions and Trajectories 73 6. Fronts 74 7. Clouds and Fogs 81 7.
Clouds 81 7. Fogs 94 8. Precipitation 99 8. Types of Precipitation 99 8. Intensity of Precipitation 8. Measuring Precipitation 8. Formation of Precipitation 8. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Precipitation 8.
Icing 8. Mountain Thunderstorms 9. Weather Maps, Forecasts, and Data 9. Weather Maps 9. Forecasting Guidelines 9. Weather Information: Data Collection and Dissemination 9. Terrain-Forced Flows Flow over Mountains Flow around Mountains
Whiteman, 2000 [book] Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals and Applications
Materials appearing in this book prepared by the authors as part of their official duties as U. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. David Whiteman.
Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications offers first an introduction to the basic principles and concepts of mountain meteorology, then goes on to discuss their application in natural resources management. It includes over two hundred beautiful, full-color photographs, figures, and diagrams, as well as observable indicators of atmospheric processes--such as winds, temperature, and clouds--to facilitate the recognition of weather systems and events for a variety of readers. It is ideal for those who spend time in or near mountains and whose daily activities are affected by weather. As a comprehensive work filled with diverse examples and colorful illustrations, it is essential for professionals, scholars, and students of meteorology. It includes over two hundred, beautiful, full-colour photographs, figures, and diagrams, as well as observable indicators of atmospheric processes-such as winds, temperature, and clouds-to facilitate the recognition of weather systems and events for a variety of readers.
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Mountain Meteorology Fundamentals and Applications [1sted.]0195132718, 9780195132717, 9780198030447
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Generated with Avocode. Mountain meteorology: Fundamentals and applications Beniston, M. This book explores a wide range of issues relevant to climatology and meteorology as applied to mountain regions.
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