factors affecting weather and climate pdf

Factors Affecting Weather And Climate Pdf

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Many factors affect the day-to-day weather and long-term climate of a given region.

All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology

Factors affecting climate Latitude or distance from the equator - Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. In areas closer to the poles, sunlight has a larger area of atmosphere to pass through and the sun is at a lower angle in the sky. As a result, more energy is lost and temperatures are cooler. In addition, the presence of ice and snow nearer the poles causes a higher albedo , meaning that more solar energy is reflected, which also contributes to the cold.

Altitude or height above sea level - Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Distance from the sea - Oceans heat up and cool down much more slowly than land. This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude. Glasgow, for example, is at a similar latitude to Moscow, but is much milder in winter because it is nearer to the coast than Moscow.

Ocean currents - Britain has a maritime climate. A warm ocean current called the North Atlantic Drift keeps Britain warmer and wetter than places in continental Europe. Prevailing wind - The prevailing wind is the most frequent wind direction a location experiences. In Britain the prevailing wind is from the South West, which brings warm, moist air from the Atlantic Ocean.

This contributes to the frequent rainfall. When prevailing winds blow over land areas it can contribute to creating desert climates.

Factors Influencing Weather and Climate

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By Stanley Changnon. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere and includes temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, visibility, pressure, and winds. Weather, as opposed to climate, includes the short-term variations of the atmosphere, ranging from minutes to months. Climate is typically considered the weather that characterizes a particular region over time. The weather must be measured and records kept to gain an understanding of the forces at work and to yield the information on the averages and extremes. By studying weather records, atmospheric scientists may be able to predict the weather ahead on scales of weeks to months with greater accuracy and modify more successfully the weather to increase precipitation or ameliorate severe storms. Causes of Weather The five factors that determine the weather of any land area are: the amount of solar energy received because of latitude; the area's elevation or proximity to mountains; nearness to large bodies of water and relative temperatures of land and water; the number of such storm systems as cyclones, hurricanes, and thunderstorms resulting from air-mass differences; and the distribution of air pressure over the land and nearest oceans, which produces varying wind and air mass patterns.

The result suggests that unfavorable diffusion conditions weak surface winds and high humidity and high primary-pollutant emissions have induced heavy-haze pollution in the BTH region over the past two decades. A sudden stratospheric warming SSW , weak East Asian winter monsoon, a weak Siberian High, weak meridional circulation, southerly wind anomalies in the lower troposphere, and abnormally weak surface winds and high humidity were responsible for the severe haze pollution events, rather than an abrupt increase in emissions. Recirculation and regional transport, along with the poorest diffusion conditions and favorable conditions for hygroscopic growth of aerosols and secondary transformation under the high emission, led to explosive growth and the record high hourly average concentration of PM 2. Haze pollution in China has increased over the past three decades, particularly in city clusters, as a result of the rapidly developing economy, expanding anthropogenic activities and urbanization [ 1 , 2 ]. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei BTH city cluster located in the North China Plain, which includes two megacities Beijing and Tianjin and Hebei province, has one of the largest populations Figure 1 a and the third largest gross domestic product in China [ 3 — 5 ]. In recent years, large-scale regional haze pollution characterized by high concentrations of PM 2. A relatively high level of PM 2.

Weather and Climate Change Implications for Surface Transportation in the USA

Skip to content. Skip to navigation. There are many different factors that affect climate around the world.

Elevation or Altitude effect climate Normally, climatic conditions become colder as altitude increases. Snow crowns the highest elevations. Prevailing global wind patterns There are 3 major wind patterns found in the Northern Hemisphere and also 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. These are average conditions and do not essentially reveal conditions on a particular day.

Factors that Influence Climate

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time, whereas climate refers to the weather pattern, using statistical data, of a place over a long enough period to yield meaningful averages. Climate is an important element because it indicates the atmospheric condition of heat, moisture and circulation; it plays a dominant role in shaping vegetation and soil; and it ultimately affects all forms of life, as a result of the very definition of the word, which is a scientific prediction, based on evidentiary statistics, sustained over a long period. There are many elements that make up both the weather and the climate of a geographical location. The most significant of these elements are temperature , atmospheric pressure , wind , solar irradiance , humidity , precipitation , condensation and topography.

Factors affecting climate Latitude or distance from the equator - Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. In areas closer to the poles, sunlight has a larger area of atmosphere to pass through and the sun is at a lower angle in the sky. As a result, more energy is lost and temperatures are cooler. In addition, the presence of ice and snow nearer the poles causes a higher albedo , meaning that more solar energy is reflected, which also contributes to the cold. Altitude or height above sea level - Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Distance from the sea - Oceans heat up and cool down much more slowly than land. This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude.

Peterson 1 and Paul Pisano 3. Weather affects the operation of the transportation systems that we all rely on—from automobiles slowed by a wet surface, to delivery trucks delayed by high winds, to passenger trains stalled by ice and snow. Daily operational decisions in the transport sector, such as the amount of cargo that a plane or a barge can safely handle, must take weather conditions into consideration. Climate, on the other hand, affects transportation infrastructure. Rising sea level and more intense flooding affect the safety and functionality of bridges and trestles. Higher temperatures buckle railroad tracks and roadways. Stronger tropical cyclones inundate and damage transportation infrastructure, resulting in delayed delivery of goods and services.


In this lesson, students focus on the factors affecting weather and climate. These include latitude, seasonal distances, aspect, altitude, distance from the sea, and.


All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology

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Weather can be defined as the condition of the atmosphere at any given time and place. Weather conditions are determined by six major factors: air temperature , air pressure , humidity of the air, amount and kind of cloud cover, amount and kind of precipitation , and speed and direction of the wind. Weather condition patterns for any one region or for the whole planet can be charted on a weather map containing information about all six of these factors. This information often can be used to produce a weather forecast, a prediction of weather conditions at some future time for some given region. The study of weather is known as meteorology. No exact date can be given for the beginnings of this science, since humans have studied weather conditions for many centuries. Indeed, the word meteorology itself goes back to Meterologica , a book written by the Greek natural philosopher Aristotle in about B.

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Сьюзан потеряла счет времени, потраченного на ожидание Следопыта. Два часа. Три.

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