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Human digestive system
The pancreas is an abdominal organ that is located behind the stomach and is surrounded by other organs, including the spleen, liver and small intestine. The pancreas is about 6 inches The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar.
Three diseases associated with the pancreas are pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes. The pancreas serves two primary functions, according to Jordan Knowlton, an advanced registered nurse practitioner at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. It makes "enzymes to digest proteins, fats, and carbs in the intestines" and produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, he said. Richard Bowen of Colorado State University's Department of Biomedical Sciences wrote in Hypertexts for Pathophysiology: Endocrine System , "A well-known effect of insulin is to decrease the concentration of glucose in blood.
Insulin also allows glucose to enter muscle and other tissue, works with the liver to store glucose and synthesize fatty acids, and "stimulates the uptake of amino acids," according to Bowen.
Insulin is released after eating protein and especially after eating carbohydrates, which increase glucose levels in the blood. If the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, type 1 diabetes will develop. Unlike insulin, glucagon raises blood sugar levels. According to the Johns Hopkins University Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center , the combination of insulin and glucagon maintains the proper level of sugar in the blood.
The pancreas' second, exocrine function is to produce and release digestive fluids. The bile duct takes the juice to the gallbladder , where it mixes with bile to aid in digestion.
The right end of the pancreas is wide and called the head. From the head, the organ tapers to the left.
The middle sections are called the neck and body, while the narrow end on the left side of the body is called the tail. Intense pancreatic pain is usually associated with acute pancreatitis. It can be hard to identify pancreas pain and evaluate pancreas diseases because the organ sits deep in the abdomen, according to The National Pancreas Association.
Other signs that the pain may be pancreatic include jaundice, itchy skin and unexplained weight loss. If you are experiencing pancreas pain, consult your doctor. The National Institutes of Health defines pancreatitis as inflammation of the pancreas, happening when "digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. There are up to 23 cases of chronic pancreatitis per , people per year worldwide.
In just the United States, it results in more than , outpatient visits and more than 56, hospitalizations per year, according to the Cleveland Clinic. The condition is often caused by "heavy, ongoing" alcohol consumption, but she added that there are other causes, including "those that cause acute pancreatitis attacks.
Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and oily stools. According to Peter Lee and Tyler Stevens, in an article for the Cleveland Clinic , "clinically apparent" oily stools steatorrhea do not appear until "90 percent of pancreatic function has been lost.
Chronic pancreatitis does not heal and tends to worsen with time, and "treatment options are mostly for pain relief.
There may be a link between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. According to the University of California Los Angeles Center for Pancreatic Diseases, "Recent studies reveal a times increase in the incidence of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis from a variety of causes.
It usually comes on suddenly and disappears within a few days of treatment. In addition to gallstones, Knowlton said that causes "may include medications, high triglycerides, high calcium in the blood and high alcohol consumption. Pancreas pain is the chief symptom of acute pancreatitis, according to Medscape.
The pain is usually severe and sudden. It increases in severity until it becomes a constant ache. This pancreas pain is felt in the upper abdomen.
The Mayo Clinic noted that the pain can radiate through to the back, and Knowlton pointed out that it might be worse after eating. Other symptoms of acute pancreatitis include nausea, vomiting, fever and diarrhea. According to Knowlton, "This patient often looks acutely ill, and requires hospitalization typically for three to five days , intravenous IV hydration, nothing by mouth for bowel rest , pain medication, treatment of underlying conditions, and possibly a radiologic procedure called an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP , which can more specifically target the problem.
It is hard to diagnose pancreatic cancer early. The Mayo Clinic noted that symptoms typically don't occur until the cancer has advanced. Knowlton said, "Unfortunately, symptoms can be vague, but can include abdominal pain, jaundice, severe itching, weight-loss, nausea, vomiting, and digestive problems.
Making matters even more complicated is the pancreas' deep-in-the-abdomen location. The NIH pointed out that as a result, tumors cannot usually be felt by touch. Because of the difficulty of early diagnosis and the rapidity with which pancreatic cancer spreads, the prognosis is often poor.
Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, long-term diabetes and chronic pancreatitis, according to the National Cancer Institute. According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce pancreatic digestive juices or in the cells that line the ducts.
In rare occasions, pancreatic cancer will begin in the cells that produce hormones. According to the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, to diagnose pancreatic cancer, doctors typically conduct physical exams, blood tests, imaging tests, endoscopic ultrasounds and tests and biopsies. Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and therapies targeted to attack cancer cells without harming normal cells.
When a person's pancreas isn't functioning properly or has to be removed, doctors may replace or supplement it with an artificial pancreas. These devices that automatically monitor blood glucose and provide the appropriate insulin doses are often called closed-loop systems, automated insulin delivery systems, or autonomous systems for glycemic control, according to the Food and Drug Administration.
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The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs present in all vertebrates. They remove waste products from the body, maintain balanced electrolyte levels, and regulate blood pressure. The kidneys are some of the most important organs. The Ancient Egyptians left only the brain and kidneys in position before embalming a body, inferring that the held a higher value. In this article, we will look at the structure and function of the kidneys, diseases that affect them, and how to keep the kidneys healthy. The right kidney is generally slightly smaller and lower than the left, to make space for the liver. A tough, fibrous renal capsule surrounds each kidney.
Human digestive system , system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract , or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream. The system also consists of the structures through which wastes pass in the process of elimination and other organs that contribute juices necessary for the digestive process. The digestive tract begins at the lips and ends at the anus. It consists of the mouth , or oral cavity, with its teeth , for grinding the food, and its tongue , which serves to knead food and mix it with saliva ; the throat, or pharynx ; the esophagus ; the stomach ; the small intestine , consisting of the duodenum , the jejunum, and the ileum ; and the large intestine , consisting of the cecum , a closed-end sac connecting with the ileum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon , which terminates in the rectum.
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Updated: Mar 31,
This article contains a list of organs of the human body. It is widely believed that there are organs; however, there is no universally standard definition of what constitutes an organ, and some tissue groups' status as one is debated. For example, this list contains much more than 79 different organs. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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