Muscle Origin And Insertion Pdf
File Name: muscle origin and insertion .zip
The muscles of the upper limb can be divided into 6 different regions: pectoral, shoulder, upper arm, anterior forearm, posterior forearm, and the hand.
NCBI Bookshelf. Ryan K. Card ; Bruno Bordoni. Authors Ryan K.
Muscles of the Upper Limb
Human muscle system , the muscles of the human body that work the skeletal system , that are under voluntary control, and that are concerned with movement, posture, and balance. Broadly considered, human muscle—like the muscles of all vertebrates—is often divided into striated muscle or skeletal muscle , smooth muscle , and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle is under involuntary control and is found in the walls of blood vessels and of structures such as the urinary bladder , the intestines , and the stomach.
Cardiac muscle makes up the mass of the heart and is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of that vital pumping organ; it too is under involuntary control. With very few exceptions, the arrangement of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle in humans is identical to the arrangement found in other vertebrate animals.
This article is concerned with the skeletal muscles of the human body, with emphasis on muscle movements and the changes that have occurred in human skeletal musculature as a result of the long evolutionary process that involved the assumption of upright posture. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and the physiology of muscle contraction are treated at great length in the article muscle.
For descriptions of disorders that affect the human muscle system, see muscle disease. The following sections provide a basic framework for the understanding of gross human muscular anatomy, with descriptions of the large muscle groups and their actions.
The various muscle groups work in a coordinated fashion to control the movements of the human body. The motion of the neck is described in terms of rotation, flexion, extension, and side bending i.
The direction of the action can be ipsilateral, which refers to movement in the direction of the contracting muscle, or contralateral, which refers to movement away from the side of the contracting muscle. Rotation is one of the most-important actions of the cervical neck spine.
Rotation is accomplished primarily by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which bends the neck to the ipsilateral side and rotates the neck contralaterally. Together, the sternocleidomastoid muscles on both sides of the neck act to flex the neck and raise the sternum to assist in forced inhalation.
The anterior and middle scalene muscles, which also are located at the sides of the neck, act ipsilaterally to rotate the neck, as well as to elevate the first rib. The splenius capitis and splenius cervicis, which are located in the back of the neck, work to rotate the head. Side bending also is an important action of the cervical spine. The sternocleidomastoid muscles are involved in cervical side bending.
The posterior scalene muscles, located on the lower sides of the neck, ipsilaterally bend the neck to the side and elevate the second rib. The splenius capitis and splenius cervicis also assist in neck side bending. The erector spinae muscles iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis are large, deep muscles that extend the length of the back. All three act to ipsilaterally side bend the neck. Neck flexion refers to the motion used to touch the chin to the chest.
It is accomplished primarily by the sternocleidomastoid muscles, with assistance from the longus colli and the longus capitis, which are found in the front of the neck. Neck extension is the opposite of flexion and is accomplished by many of the same muscles that are used for other neck movements, including the splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis muscles.
The back contains the origins of many of the muscles that are involved in the movement of the neck and shoulders. In addition, the axial skeleton that runs vertically through the back protects the spinal cord , which innervates almost all the muscles in the body. Multiple muscles in the back function specifically in movements of the back.
The erector spinae muscles, for example, extend the back bend it backward and side bend the back. The semispinalis dorsi and semispinalis capitis muscles also extend the back. The small muscles of the vertebrae the multifidi and rotators help rotate, extend, and side bend the back. The quadratus lumborum muscle in the lower back side bends the lumbar spine and aids in the inspiration of air through its stabilizing affects at its insertion at the 12th rib the last of the floating ribs.
The scapula shoulder blade is elevated by the trapezius muscle , which runs from the back of the neck to the middle of the back, by the rhomboid major and rhomboid minor muscles in the upper back, and by the levator scapulae muscle, which runs along the side and back of the neck.
Human muscle system Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Coauthor of Lifestyles and Anatomies in Prosimians. See Article History. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones by tendons. Lateral view of the human muscular system. The structure of striated, or skeletal, muscle. Striated muscle tissue, such as the tissue of the human biceps muscle, consists of long fine fibres, each of which is in effect a bundle of finer myofibrils.
Within each myofibril are filaments of the proteins myosin and actin; these filaments slide past one another as the muscle contracts and expands. On each myofibril, regularly occurring dark bands, called Z lines, can be seen where actin and myosin filaments overlap. The region between two Z lines is called a sarcomere; sarcomeres can be considered the primary structural and functional unit of muscle tissue.
Anterior view of the human muscular system. Posterior view of human muscular system. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn the causes and treatment of back pain. Load Next Page.
Muscles of the Upper Limb
Human muscle system , the muscles of the human body that work the skeletal system , that are under voluntary control, and that are concerned with movement, posture, and balance. Broadly considered, human muscle—like the muscles of all vertebrates—is often divided into striated muscle or skeletal muscle , smooth muscle , and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle is under involuntary control and is found in the walls of blood vessels and of structures such as the urinary bladder , the intestines , and the stomach. Cardiac muscle makes up the mass of the heart and is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of that vital pumping organ; it too is under involuntary control. With very few exceptions, the arrangement of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle in humans is identical to the arrangement found in other vertebrate animals. This article is concerned with the skeletal muscles of the human body, with emphasis on muscle movements and the changes that have occurred in human skeletal musculature as a result of the long evolutionary process that involved the assumption of upright posture.
There are over muscles in the human body. Learning the muscular system often involves memorizing details about each muscle, like where a muscle attaches to bones and how a muscle helps move a joint. In textbooks and lectures these details about muscles are described using specialized vocabulary that is hard to understand. Here is an example: The triceps brachii has three bellies with varying origins scapula and humerus and one insertion ulna. It is a prime mover of elbow extension. The anconeus acts as a synergist in elbow extension.
By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations:. The skeletal muscles are divided into axial muscles of the trunk and head and appendicular muscles of the arms and legs categories. This system reflects the bones of the skeleton system, which are also arranged in this manner. Some of the axial muscles may seem to blur the boundaries because they cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The first grouping of the axial muscles you will review includes the muscles of the head and neck, then you will review the muscles of the vertebral column, and finally you will review the oblique and rectus muscles.
Discover the origins, insertions, innervations, and functions of every muscle with our muscle anatomy charts. Available as PDF or on iTunes. Get yours now!
Human muscle system
This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy. There are around skeletal muscles  within the typical human body. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e. The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs.
NCBI Bookshelf. Osama Javed ; Kenia A. Maldonado ; Roman Ashmyan. Authors Osama Javed ; Kenia A. Maldonado ; Roman Ashmyan 1.
Хейл улыбнулся: - Так заканчивал Танкадо все свои письма ко. Это было его любимое изречение.
AXIAL MUSCLES OF THE HEAD NECK AND BACK
Неужели высвободился. Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер. Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла.
От него не ускользнула ирония ситуации: он получал возможность работать в самом сердце правительства страны, которую поклялся ненавидеть до конца своих дней. Энсей решил пойти на собеседование. Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее. Танкадо прошел проверку на полиграф-машине и пережил пять недель интенсивного психологического тестирования. И с успехом его выдержал. Ненависть в его сердце уступила место преданности Будде.
Мы организуем утечку секретной информации. И весь мир сразу же узнает о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ. Сьюзан вопросительно смотрела на. - Это совсем просто, Сьюзан, мы позволим правде выйти за эти стены.
Панк кивнул. - Tenia el anillo. Он получил кольцо. До смерти напуганный, Двухцветный замотал головой: - Нет.
- У Стратмора стол ломится от заказов. Вряд ли он позволил бы ТРАНСТЕКСТУ простаивать целый уик-энд. - Хорошо, хорошо. - Мидж вздохнула. - Я ошиблась.
Соединения долго не. Наконец раздались длинные гудки.