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They also added colour to their buildings by using marbles, red and yellow sand stones.
- Art and Architecture of the Regional Styles 750 AD to c.1200 (Deccan and south India)
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- Chronicle IAS Academy – Indian Art & Culture Notes PDF
India is known for its cultural heritage in the whole world.
UPSC Civil Services syllabus cover a wide range of subjects and topics that every aspirant is expected to know. That is very important as the selected civil services aspirants will go on to become IAS and other civil services officers who take important decisions affecting the country. So a wide knowledge of the Indian heritage, art and culture are required as well. Art and culture play a significant role in overall development of a country.
Art and Architecture of the Regional Styles 750 AD to c.1200 (Deccan and south India)
The present chapter in continuation with the previous chapter will discuss the growth of architecture and sculpture in south India and Deccan from to CE. The early beginnings of architecture and sculpture in south India and Deccan under the patronage provided by the Pallavas and the Chalukya rulers has already been discussed in great detail in chapter 10 see chapter on cultural development. The foundations of the Dravida or the south Indian style of architecture were laid under the Pallava rulers, who ruled from the sixth to the ninth century CE.
The architecture of the Deccan or Vesara style was an amalgamation of the Nagara and Dravida style of architecture and developed under the Chalukyas. Politically by the eighth century CE the Deccan and southern India were experiencing changes in political environment. From the middle of the sixth century to the thirteenth century, the Deccan region of peninsular India came under the sway of a line of rulers.
An important dynasty was the Chalukyas of Badami ruling from their capital at Badami or Vatapi. The Early Chalukyas achieved political unification of much of the Deccan for almost years, even though during this period portions of their territories were temporarily lost to the Pallavas from the Tamil country in southern India.
Just Art and architecture of the Deccan I: Kailashnatha temple, ElloraIn Deccan the most fascinating traditions of rock-cut and structural temples emerged from the sixth to the thirteenth centuries CE.
The religious monuments of the Chalukyas of Badami are of outstanding interest for their transition from cutting into rock to free-standing construction, as well as for their range of distinctive architectural styles. Hardly anywhere else in India it is possible to find cave-temples and structural temples of the same period beside each other at the same site, as in Badami and Aihole; nor at other sites can temples be seen next to each other built in contrasting Dravida and Nagara styles, as at Mahakuta and Pattadakal.
One of the finest examples of rock cut architecture in Deccan is the Kailasa temple at Ellora. The temple was the result of the munificence of Rashtrakuta king Krishna I CE and was named after him as Krishnesvara. The style of carving for the main complex is uniform. Its architectural and elevational impact is marred by the fact that it is located as if in a huge pit or hollow of a rocky hill. The plan of the temple has a square mandapa with sixteen columns, three porches, sandhara plan of shrine and ambulatory passage pradakshina-patha.
Its ambulatory passage is an open terrace. The iconography of the south wall of its mandapa is rich with Ramayana panels. The largest of the Pattadakal temples and the most elaborately planned and artistically embellished monument of the Chalukya period, the Virupaksha stands at the southern perimeter of the site's landscaped compound. The temple is associated with Lokamahadevi, queen of Vikramaditya II, and was original named after her as Lokeshvara.
That the temple must have been considered the outstanding achievement of the era is borne out by two inscriptions on the eastern gateway to the complex. Many of the sculptors involved on the project also have their names engraved beneath the carved panels that they worked on. Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal Source: AuthorThe Virupaksha temple is the focus of a symmetrically planned complex, with a stone paved compound bounded by walls and sub-Regionalism: Art and Architecture of the Regional Styles AD to c.
A Nandi pavilion stands freely within the compound, between the temple and the eastern gateway. The temple consists of a linga sanctuary surrounded by a passageway on three sides, lit by windows on three sides and preceded by a vestibule. This opens into a square mandapa with sixteen free-standing columns creating five aisles running in both directions, the central aisles being slightly wider.
Art and Architecture in south India I: Pallava ArchitectureA definite architectural and iconographical vocabulary had developed in south India under the Pallavas by the seventh century CE. This is clear indicated in the rock cut structures that the Pallavas created at Mahabalipuram Tamil Nadu. It was also under the Pallavas that the first structural temples were created in south India.
The Shore temple at Mahabalipuram is considered the first structural temple built in south India. The temple is constructed out of blocks of granite and was constructed under the patronage of the Pallava king Narsimhavarman II Rajasimha CE. The temple has an unusual plan with three distinct worship areas constructed on a same platform; the primary worship area faces east and is dedicated to Shiva.
This worship area has the highest pyramidal superstructure. The second, smaller shrine is also dedicated to Shiva and consists of a smaller superstructure. The third shrine is located at the western edge and is dedicated to Vishnu as Anantashayin and has no superstructure.
The figure of Anantashayin was carved out of existing rock at situ. The plan of the early temples consisted of a vimana and an ardhmandapa. The entire complex was surrounded by a prakara and a small gopuram was placed at the principal entrance, the superstructure of which was constructed in brick.
The Brihadishvara temple at Tanjore during its time of construction was one of the largest buildings to be constructed in the world. The temple has a number of inscriptions and inform that the temple was constructed between CE CE. Dedicated to Shiva the temple was originally surrounded by two prakara walls, the inner prakara is feet long east-west and feet broad north-south and has gopuram on the east entrance and three small torana on the other three sides.
The outer prakara is now completely lost, but the gopuram attached to it still stands on the east. Institute One of the finest examples of the earlySeen in the photograph are the two entrance gopuram to the Brihadishvara temple, notice the barrel valuted roof that finishes the shikhara of the gopuram. In front of the temple rests an enormous stone image of Nandi, which is sixteen feet long and thirteen feet high.
The main temple itself is constructed out of granite and is one hundred and eighty feet in length and consists of a mukhamandapa, ardhmandapa, an antarala, a garbhagriha and a pradakshinapath. The niches on outer walls of the temple contain images of various forms of Shiva. The Vimana of the temple is two hundred and sixteen feet high and consists of sixteen stories Art and Architecture: Third PhaseThe last phase of architecture under the Chola patronage began in CE and lasted till CE.
During this phase the Chola rulers focused on restoration of the old temples and made additions to the existing temples than undertaking new temple projects. Both these rulers also added a prakara wall and a gopuram to the already existing goddess shrine at Regionalism: Art and Architecture of the Regional Styles AD to c.
Another feature that became common during this time was construction of separate shrine for the female goddesses, which came to be known as the Amman shrines. The addition of free standing mandapas that are popularly called the 'thousand pillared halls' also became popular' the mandapas of the temple became more ornate and started receiving special attention; one of the architectural feature peculiar to this phase of Chola architecture was the shape of the mandapas which imitated form of a chariot.
The number and size of gopurams increased, they also became more ornate than before. Metal SculptureThe Cholas created some of the most exquisite metal sculptures known to humankind. Their bronze sculptures are world famous for their exquisite quality, beauty, grace and precision. Pratapaditya Pal rightly notes that the Chola sculptors found an ideal balance between form and ornamentation.
Although the figures are idealized, they appear to be naturalistically modeled. Chola bronzes have found their way in all major museums in the world. Before the Cholas, even the Pallavas were aware of the knowledge of bronze casting, but only few examples of Pallava bronze sculpture survive. The technique used to create the bronze sculpture by the Cholas is called cire perdue or the lost wax process.
According to this process a wax model of the image created was made with all complete details of jewellery, clothes etc, then this image was coated with three layers of clay.
This clay-encased wax image was heated, the wax melted out leaving a hollow cavity within the clay image. The molted bronze was then carefully poured inside the hollow clay image and was allowed to cool.
Once the metal was called and set the clay was broken revealing a bronze image. Details were reworked and image was given its final shape. Out of all the images created by Chola sculptors the image of Shiva as Nataraja is their best-known creation, they are best known for their high aesthetic quality.
These bronze images unlike the stone sculptures that were sculpted on Other Architectural Achievements Describe the Lost wax processAns. According to the lost wax process or cire perdue a wax model of the image created was made with all complete details of jewellery, clothes etc, then this image was coated with three layers of clay. What were the important landmarks of Chola architecture in third phase of architecture? Construction of separate shrine for the female goddesses, whichInstitute of Lifelong Learning, University of Delhi Their religious and artistic activity centered in and around Tanjore.
From CE for about two centuries, the Rashtrakutas ruled over the Deccan. The decedents of Taila Institute of Lifelong Learning, University of Delhiruledfrom there until CE, when the region was temporarily occupied by the Kalachuris with their capital at Annigeri and was afterwards shifted to Kalyani.
The Chalukyas of Kalyani regained power and ruled until CE. Due to the declining strength, the southern part of their territory was occupied by the Hoysalas and the northern by the Yadavas of Devagiri. The Yadavas ruled from CE.
The Kakatiyas who were vassals of the Chalukyas of Kalyani became independent after the defeat of the Chalukyas by the Kalachuris. The Kakatiyas rose to power and ruled over a large part of the Deccan for nearly three centuries. The Eastern Chalukyas has established themselves in Vengi by the second half of the eighth century and ruled till late tenth century, when they defeated by the Cholas. The Pallavas of Kanchi continued to rule till the ninth century coming constantly in conflict with the Chalukyas, Pandyas and Rashtrakutas, their power slowly dwindling replaced by the Cholas.
The Cholas came to power at Tanjore under Vijayalaya, who defeated the Muttaraiyar chiefs. In the beginning of their rule the Cholas accepted Pallavas as their overlords, but by the end of the ninth century, beginning of tenth the Cholas under the leadership of Aditya I CE had become one of the strongest dynasty ruling from south India. By mid twelfth century under the rule of the later Chola kings the empire began to dwindle loosing territory to the westernRegionalism: Art and Architecture of the Regional Styles AD to c.
Each of the political dynasties that ruled south India and Deccan created some of the exquisite examples of art, both in terms of temple architecture and sculpture. The sculptures on the outer walls are among the greatest masterpieces of Chalukya plastic art. Panels on the passageway walls are mostly devoted to Shiva, which include icons of Bhikshatana, Bhairava, Lakulisha holding a club, and Harihara.
The central projection on the north passageway walls has a formally posed eight-armed image of Vishnu armed with disc, conch, sword, shield, bow and arrow, with a dwarf at the feet. That this may be a replacement image is suggested by Shiva and Parvati between exquisitely modelled makaras with open jaws, riders and cascading tails on the walls above, and diminutive Mahishasuramardini beneath.
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UPSC Civil Services syllabus cover a wide range of subjects and topics that every aspirant is expected to know. That is very important as the selected civil services aspirants will go on to become IAS and other civil services officers who take important decisions affecting the country. So a wide knowledge of the Indian heritage, art and culture are required as well. Art and culture play a significant role in overall development of a country. It is surely important in a culture rich country like India, with world s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings. You all must have this kind of questions in your mind.
Chronicle IAS Academy – Indian Art & Culture Notes PDF
By this endpoint Buddhism in India had greatly declined, and Hinduism was predominant, and religious and secular building styles had taken on forms, with great regional variation, which they largely retained until and beyond the great changes brought about by the arrival of first Islam, and then Europeans. Much early Indian architecture was in wood, which has almost always decayed or burnt, or brick, which has often been taken away for re-use. The large amount of Indian rock-cut architecture , essentially beginning around BCE, is therefore especially important, as much of it clearly adapts forms from contemporary constructed buildings of which no examples remain. There are also a number of important sites where the floor-plan has survived to be excavated, but the upper parts of structures have vanished. Archaeology has unearthed urbanization phase from early Harappan in Kalibangan to the late Harappan phase when urbanization declined but was preserved in few pockets.
Indian art and architecture, works of art and architecture produced on the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided among India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Introduction Although a great deal of Indian secular art was produced, it was essentially made of perishable material and has not survived. What has survived in the medium of stone is religious art. In both Buddhist and Hindu art, symbolism in gesture, posture, and attribute contains many levels of meaning. In images of the Buddha, different hand positions mudras signify religious states, such as the Enlightenment Nirvana , Meditation, and Preaching.
Its patrons were the rulers of the many kingdoms of varied size in these regions, both sovereign princes and their feudatory chiefs, and its practitioners were employed in their court studios. Rajput painting originated in the royal states of Rajasthan, somewhere around the late 16th and early 17th century. It had an entirely indigenous origin and its roots can be traced to the tradition of […] Many thanks.
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