List Of All Vitamins And Minerals Pdf
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Humans need a certain daily intake of food supplements. This page summarizes recommended daily intakes by various health experts and agencies in order to provide an overview of recommended daily allowances of all vitamins and minerals.
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The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient.
Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions. Meanwhile, minerals play an important role in growth, bone health, fluid balance and several other processes. This article provides a detailed overview of micronutrients, their functions and implications of excess consumption or deficiency.
A to Z of supplements
Vitamins and minerals are only needed in small quantities in the body, but their role is essential to overall health and proper functioning of all body systems. And while many vitamins and minerals work together to perform various functions in the body, they are classified based on their independent characteristics.
These characteristics impact not only how we obtain them in our diets, but also how we absorb them and store them, as well as how we experience deficiencies or toxicities when too little or too much is consumed.
After we review the classifications for vitamins and minerals, we will examine key vitamins and minerals based on their similar functions to further highlight the importance of how these micronutrients work together. Vitamins are essential, non-caloric, organic micronutrients.
Vitamins are traditionally categorized into two groups: water-soluble or fat-soluble. Whether vitamins are water-soluble or fat-soluble can affect their functions and sites of action. Figure 8. Classification of vitamins as water-soluble or fat-soluble. One major difference between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins is the way they are absorbed in the body. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed directly from the small intestine into the bloodstream. Fat-soluble vitamins are first incorporated into chylomicrons, along with fatty acids, and transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream and then on to the liver.
The bioavailability i. Because fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fat, if a meal is very low in fat, the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins in that meal may be impaired. Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins also differ in how they are stored in the body. The fat-soluble vitamins—vitamins A, D, E, and K—can be stored in the liver and the fatty tissues of the body. The ability to store these vitamins allows the body to draw on these stores when dietary intake is low, so deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins may take months to develop as the body stores become depleted.
While toxic levels are typically only achieved through vitamin supplements, if large quantities of fat-soluble vitamins are consumed, either through foods or supplements, vitamin levels can build up in the liver and fatty tissues, leading to symptoms of toxicity. There is limited storage capacity in the body for water-soluble vitamins, thus making it important to consume these vitamins on a daily basis. Deficiency of water-soluble vitamins is more common than fat-soluble vitamin deficiency because of this lack of storage.
That also means toxicity of water-soluble vitamins is rare. Because of their solubility in water, intake of these vitamins in amounts above what is needed by the body can, to some extent, be excreted in the urine, leading to a lower risk of toxicity. Similar to fat-soluble vitamins, a toxic intake of water-soluble vitamins is not common through food sources, but is most frequently seen due to supplement use.
Characteristics of Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Characteristics of Water-Soluble Vitamins. Absorbed into lymph with fats from foods. Absorbed directly into blood. Large storage capacity in fatty tissues. Little to no storage capacity. Do not need to be consumed daily to prevent deficiency may take months to develop. Need to be consumed regularly to prevent deficiency. Toxicity is more likely.
Toxicity is rare. Table 8. Characteristics of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Similarly to vitamins, minerals are micronutrients that are essential to human health and can be obtained in our diet from different types of food. Minerals are abundant in our everyday lives. From the soil in your front yard to the jewelry you wear on your body, we interact with minerals constantly. Minerals are inorganic elements in their simplest form, originating from the Earth.
Plants obtain minerals from the soil they grow in. Humans obtain minerals from eating plants, as well as indirectly from eating animal products because the animal consumed minerals in the plants it ate. We also get minerals from the water we drink. The mineral content of soil and water varies from place to place, so the mineral composition of foods and water differs based on geographic location.
Minerals are classified as either major minerals or trace minerals, depending on the amount needed in the body. Major minerals are those that are required in the diet in amounts larger than milligrams each day. These include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur. These major minerals can be found in many foods.
Trace minerals are classified as minerals required in the diet in smaller amounts, specifically milligrams or less per day. These include iron, copper, zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, fluoride, manganese, and molybdenum. Although trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts, a deficiency of a trace mineral can be just as detrimental to your health as a major mineral deficiency. The classification of minerals as either major minerals or trace minerals. Minerals are water-soluble and do not require enzymatic digestion.
They are absorbed directly into the bloodstream, although some minerals need the assistance of transport proteins for absorption and transport in blood. Minerals are not as efficiently absorbed as most vitamins, and many factors influence their bioavailability:. Skip to content Vitamins and minerals are only needed in small quantities in the body, but their role is essential to overall health and proper functioning of all body systems.
A short history of nutritional science: part 3 — The Journal of nutrition, 10 , Previous: Introduction to Vitamins and Minerals. Next: Sources of Vitamins and Minerals. Share This Book Share on Twitter. Act in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood.
Vitamins and Minerals: How to Get What You Need
Vitamins and minerals are only needed in small quantities in the body, but their role is essential to overall health and proper functioning of all body systems. And while many vitamins and minerals work together to perform various functions in the body, they are classified based on their independent characteristics. These characteristics impact not only how we obtain them in our diets, but also how we absorb them and store them, as well as how we experience deficiencies or toxicities when too little or too much is consumed. After we review the classifications for vitamins and minerals, we will examine key vitamins and minerals based on their similar functions to further highlight the importance of how these micronutrients work together. Vitamins are essential, non-caloric, organic micronutrients. Vitamins are traditionally categorized into two groups: water-soluble or fat-soluble. Whether vitamins are water-soluble or fat-soluble can affect their functions and sites of action.
list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of much of each nutrient you need every day, and what types of food to.
Micronutrients are the vitamins and minerals found in food that nourish your body and help keep you healthy. They are essential to your overall health. Choosing foods each day that are rich in vitamins and minerals is the best way for your body to get what it needs to be healthy. According to the U.
Vitamins and Minerals
Find out the facts about vitamins, minerals and other food supplements, and the role they play in maintaining good health. Learn more about where they come from; how and why they are used as food supplements; which foods they can be found in; and any known adverse effects or precautionary advice. Simply search our A-Z by name or filter the list by type e. Page content last reviewed: March 20, Page content last reviewed: April 28,
A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you.
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