Structure And Functions Of Food Authority Fssai Pdf
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- Functions of FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India)
- Structure and Functions of Food Authority
- FSSAI Food Safety Officer Exam Syllabus 2020 - Exam Pattern @ fssai.gov.in
Food is the primary source of nutrients to keep us nourished and healthy. Poor and unhealthy diets implicated with the increase of several non-communicable diseases NCDs require a food-based approach to reduce the ongoing rise. Traditional knowledge and science behind food-related health benefits became evident in the last three decades. Active ingredients, bioactive molecules and conventionally used herbs were clinically researched and proven to have beneficial outcomes.
Functions of FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India)
Food is the primary source of nutrients to keep us nourished and healthy. Poor and unhealthy diets implicated with the increase of several non-communicable diseases NCDs require a food-based approach to reduce the ongoing rise.
Traditional knowledge and science behind food-related health benefits became evident in the last three decades. Active ingredients, bioactive molecules and conventionally used herbs were clinically researched and proven to have beneficial outcomes. In the Indian scenario, the multiplicity of food products, including medicinal type formats, such as health supplements, containing plant, herbs or novel ingredients, brings in a new complexity to regulations.
Several of these ingredients are pharmacologically active substances and could overlap with drug regulations. The data generated on the nutritional and health benefit of a supplement should be reproducible, outcomes measurable and disease risk reduction shown by well-designed research studies. Regulatory challenges occur at several levels, namely, harmonization of law, fair trade practice, population exposures to chemicals and contaminants, food borne illness, rise in NCD's, novel ingredients, new technologies and a legacy of regulatory practice.
While regulatory and legal challenges will always exist, reliance on the role of scientific research in the regulatory context becomes significant. In the current era, modern lifestyles built around automation, reduced physical activity and other socio-economic factors have contributed to the rising trend in non-communicable diseases NCDs. Consumers now recognize the need to improve their diets with additional nutrition and healthy options. Supplements are increasingly being used to maintain an active lifestyle and to address specific health concerns.
Advice by regulatory agencies to improve micronutrient intakes through a well-balanced diet may be inadequate 1. In addition to fortified foods, alternative options of non-prescribed vitamin and mineral and botanicals supplement offered in pills and capsules augment nutrient intakes. The emergence of this new food format poses a regulatory challenge to distinguish them from drugs.
Several factors make this differentiation possible. Conceptually, two factors guide regulatory jurisprudence - categorization and definitions. Categorization is a facet-based classification whereby all foods are aggregated by their purpose of use or as marketed.
The Codex Categorization System 2 , adopted by India 3 categorizes all foods and products into 16 categories in a hierarchical order 4. Foods consumed by the general population and eaten for enjoyment are placed in categories , except Category Included in these sub-categories are infant foods, infant formulae and foods for special dietary use FSDU or foods for special medical purpose 2.
Food products are generally marketed in conventional food forms biscuits, bread, soups, shakes, etc. Only health supplements category Categorization of foods is a key structural regulatory principle for the differential regulatory treatment of food products and harmonizing them globally. Supplements are defined internationally and reveal a high level of harmonization. The Dietary Supplement Health Education Act DSHEA, 6 is perhaps the first Act that deems supplements to be foods though these are marketed in formats typically associated with medicinal products, namely pills, tablets or capsules.
Thereafter, several regulations have emerged 1 , 7. The legal framework for health supplements provided in the Food Safety and Standards Act 8 is based on these pre-existing Acts and regulations. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN , the definition reads 'Health supplements mean any product that is used to supplement a diet and to maintain, enhance and improve the healthy function of a human body and may contain one or more or combinations of nutrients or substances including botanicals, in various forms such as extracts or concentrates, presented in dosage forms' 9.
The EU directive defines food supplements as 'food stuffs the purpose of which is to supplement the normal diet and which are concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect, alone or in combination, marketed in dose form, namely forms such as capsules, pastilles, tablets, pills and other similar forms, sachets of powder, ampoules of liquids, drop dispensing bottles, and other similar forms of liquids and powders designed to be taken in measured small unit quantities' 1.
In the US, the term 'dietary supplement' means a product other than tobacco intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients; vitamin, mineral, herb or other botanical, amino acid, a dietary substance for use by human, to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any ingredient described above and enzymes. It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or the diet 6.
Codex 7 provides guidelines for vitamin and mineral food supplements. The term 'nutraceuticals' while not recognized in international regulations, to describe a similar food category, is an additional term in the Indian regulations 9. FSDUs are specially prepared for persons with specific dietary needs due to an existing physiological condition or disorder and when normal foods are incapable of meeting their needs.
Low- and very low-calorie diets or kcal are formulated for weight control and provide vitamins and minerals at recommended dietary allowance RDA levels These foods are presented in conventional food forms biscuits, shakes and soups and provide daily dietary needs for energy and macronutrients.
Hence, FSDUs are not produced and marketed in the form of tablets, capsules, etc 9. Several regulatory declarations further distinguish health supplements from drugs; these do not provide or possess the properties to diagnose, mitigate or prevent a disease in humans and prohibited from making such claims. Foods and their components or any substance added to food are subject to safety assessment using a scientific methodology of risk assessment, comprising hazard identification, characterization, exposure assessment and finally risk characterization 8.
Appropriate regulatory controls are applied taking into account risk assessments done through another methodology namely risk management; e. Risk assessment and risk management processes rely on the scientific evidence and relevant data before rulemaking. Both processes are separate and performed by relevant subject matter experts.
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that worldwide, 'more than 2 billion people experience deficiencies in essential vitamins and mineral intakes' The maximum amount of vitamins and minerals permitted in health supplements under the Act 8 is the RDA, which may imply that intakes above are unsafe. Concerns arise from overconsumption on one hand while also a realization that sub-optimal intakes continue due to an unwillingness to adopt a balanced diet. Codex guidelines 7 require maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in food supplements per daily portion of consumption to be set, taking into account 'upper safe levels of vitamins and minerals established by scientific risk assessment' and considering the 'daily intake from other dietary sources' 7.
India and China, among several other countries, have a rich traditional practice in the administration of plant and herbal remedies for health and medicinal purposes. While traditional medicine is well recognized and regulated, health supplements are yet to achieve a similar acceptance in the regulatory space particularly for claims. The WHO acknowledges traditional knowledge in its definition 'traditional and complementary medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness' While the classical methodology of clinical evaluations and dose-response studies form the core of evaluating safety of substances added to foods e.
The Scientific Committee of European Food Safety Authority EFSA 15 used 'qualified presumption of safety approach for microorganisms in food to propose criteria presuming a botanical or a botanical preparation to be safe' 14 , Food claims are messages that convert scientific knowledge into consumer benefits and applicable to all foods with a few exceptions.
They should be truthful, well supported by scientific substantiation and not mislead the consumer through false and exaggerated language. Globally, the claims framework is well harmonized 16 , 17 , 18 , 20 Fig. Harmonization of claims framework. Broadly, claims may be described as 'functional' non-disease and reduction of risk factors disease related Fig.
Functional claims comprise nutrient function claims, other function claims 18 and structure or function claims 6 , 20 and the reduction of disease risk claims Two Indian regulations 10 , 19 on claims address provisions with some overlap. All claims must be scientifically substantiated to protect the consumer interest and health. Claims may be authorized and listed in regulations, on the strength of existing scientific evidence 21 , 22 , 23 , described as significant scientific agreement US, Canada ; general-accepted scientific evidence of beneficial physiological effect in humans EU ; established food-health relationships based on the totality and weight of evidence Australia, New Zealand.
The need for a further substantiation is generally not required for functional claims nutrient function or other function when the level of evidence obtained is acceptable across the scientific community Structure or function claims used under the U. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease'. Often, the route to verify claims is a systematic review of scientific literature and where required a clinical verification.
In case of botanicals and herbal remedies, a systematic review of traditional texts should be considered as equivalent to clinical verification for claim substantiation. Modern food control systems based on risk have replaced traditional frameworks. India moved to a risk-based system of food control in 8. Characterization of food safety systems. Source : Ref A regulatory challenge posed by the Act 8 is institutionalizing functional competencies required for risk assessment and risk management.
Second, for risk-based systems to emerge from an outdated predecessor - the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 8 , the inherited architecture of 'standards making' - needs complete overhaul and revision.
A simplified structural arrangement between regulations is critically required to remove ongoing complexities, arising from overlap and duplicity, poor cross-referencing and contextual misplacements of clauses. An illustrated example is the approval of plant sterols. Indian regulations approved phytosterols an ingredient under two regulations; the first under the heading 3.
In another regulation, phytosterols are placed under the heading 'nutraceutical ingredients' Schedule VIB Plural regulatory treatments across regulations for the same ingredient create complexities and misrepresentation: whether the substance is a food additive, nutraceutical ingredient or novel food?
International regulations may use different regulatory instruments to approve phytosterols, but these are made contextually clear to all involved in the standards-setting process Well-established regulatory mechanisms exist for the control of food safety and effective communication of health benefits to the consumer. Regulatory methodologies of risk assessment and risk management provide a scientific basis for effective laws and regulations for public health outcomes.
A spinoff from these methodologies is the developmental need of specific skill sets required for regulatory sciences and governance. The Food Safety and Standards Act through its mandates ensures the capability to face the emerging challenges of food safety and health of its people.
Conflicts of Interest : None. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Med Res. Lewis 2. Joseph I. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.
Abstract Food is the primary source of nutrients to keep us nourished and healthy. Keywords: Food safety, health supplements, India, nutraceuticals, regulation. Introduction In the current era, modern lifestyles built around automation, reduced physical activity and other socio-economic factors have contributed to the rising trend in non-communicable diseases NCDs. Categorization Conceptually, two factors guide regulatory jurisprudence - categorization and definitions.
Definition Supplements are defined internationally and reveal a high level of harmonization. Safety and efficacy of ingredients Foods and their components or any substance added to food are subject to safety assessment using a scientific methodology of risk assessment, comprising hazard identification, characterization, exposure assessment and finally risk characterization 8. Nutrition and health claims Food claims are messages that convert scientific knowledge into consumer benefits and applicable to all foods with a few exceptions.
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Structure and Functions of Food Authority
On the 23rd of August, the government of India passed the FSS Act or the food safety and standards act which changed the way food safety and food handling practices are being monitored in India. The standards set by FSSAI, empowered under the Food Safety and Standards Act are based on scientific research and help regulate the manufacture, storage, distribution, sale as well as import-export of all types of food articles being made available to the general population. The FSS Act endows powers to the FSSAI to certify organizations involved in any type of food-related activities that they are involved with food articles safe for consumption of human beings. The Act empowered by the government of India has been divided into 12 Chapters which discuss in detail the impact, regulations, authorities that the Act carries with it to empower the safety of food products. Preliminary basically gives the introduction to the Act what it stands for, what are the definitions related to the act and also declared that the Union is taking the food industry under its control for the purpose of public interest. One of the main functions of FSSAI include is checking the food standards of all consumable items and providing them with.
The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) was established in under the aegis of the The main role of Authority is to regulate and monitor, manufacture, processing, distribution, sale and import of food 16 MANUAL FOR FOOD SAFETY OFFICERS. 2. The Governing Structure of FSSAI is given below.
FSSAI Food Safety Officer Exam Syllabus 2020 - Exam Pattern @ fssai.gov.in
The FSSAI is responsible for setting standards for food so that there is one body to deal with and no confusion in the minds of consumers, traders, manufacturers, and investors. FSSAI is located in 5 regions . This act also sets up the formulation and enforcement of food safety standards in India. The FSS Act is a bucket for all the older laws, rules and regulations for food safety.
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FSSAI Central FSO Syllabus 2020
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Это сделаю я, - сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола. Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место.
Далекий голос… - Дэвид. Он почувствовал болезненное жжение в боку. Мое тело мне больше не принадлежит.
Когда службы безопасности выдворяли его из страны, он успел сказать несколько слов Стратмору, причем произнес их с ледяным спокойствием: - Мы все имеем право на тайну. И я постараюсь это право обеспечить. ГЛАВА 7 Мозг Сьюзан лихорадочно работал: Энсей Танкадо написал программу, с помощью которой можно создавать шифры, не поддающиеся взлому. Она никак не могла свыкнуться с этой мыслью.
Лампы, замигав, зажглись. Беккер поставил коробку на пол и подошел к столу. Наклонился и осмотрел пальцы левой руки. Лейтенант следил за его взглядом.
Это просто как день. Как они этого сразу не заметили. Северная Дакота - вовсе не отсылка к названию американского штата, это соль, которой он посыпал их раны. Он даже предупредил АНБ, подбросив ключ, что NDAKOTA - он .
Утечка прекратилась! - крикнул техник. - Вторжение прекращено. Наверху, на экране ВР, возникла первая из пяти защитных стен. Черные атакующие линии начали исчезать.
Очевидно, получалась бессмыслица. Желая помочь, Беккер обратил их внимание на то, что все показанные ему иероглифы объединяет нечто общее - они одновременно являются и иероглифами кандзи. В комнате тут же стало тихо. Старший дешифровщик, нескладный тип по имени Морант, не выпускавший сигареты изо рта, недоверчиво уставился на Беккера.
ГЛАВА 52 Клуб Колдун располагался на окраине города, в конце автобусного маршрута 27. Похожий скорее на крепость, чем на танцевальное заведение, он со всех сторон был окружен высокими оштукатуренными стенами с вделанными в них битыми пивными бутылками - своего рода примитивной системой безопасности, не дающей возможности проникнуть в клуб незаконно, не оставив на стене изрядной части собственного тела. Еще в автобусе Беккер смирился с мыслью, что его миссия провалилась. Пора звонить Стратмору и выкладывать плохую новость: поиски зашли в тупик.
И сразу же услышала треск. Хейл, сидя на плите и действуя вытянутыми ногами как тараном, сорвал решетчатую дверь с петель, ворвался в комнату и теперь приближался к ней большими прыжками. Сьюзан швырнула ему под ноги настольную лампу, но Хейл легко преодолел это препятствие.
Должно быть, это какая-то ошибка. Следопыт показывал адрес, не имеющий никакого смысла. Взяв себя в руки, она перечитала сообщение. Это была та же информация, которую получил Стратмор, когда сам запустил Следопыта. Тогда они оба подумали, что он где-то допустил ошибку, но сейчас-то она знала, что действовала правильно.
В зависимости от уровня допуска они попадали в те отсеки банка данных, которые соответствовали сфере их деятельности. - Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь. - Да, - сказал Фонтейн, - и двадцать четыре часа в сутки наши фильтры безопасности их туда не пускают. Так что вы хотите сказать.
О да, конечно, - медленно проговорила женщина, готовая прийти на помощь потенциальному клиенту. - Вам нужна сопровождающая. - Да-да. Сегодня мой брат Клаус нанял девушку, очень красивую. С рыжими волосами.
- Что он ищет? - Мгновение он испытывал неловкость, всматриваясь в экран, а потом принял решение. Хейл достаточно понимал язык программирования Лимбо, чтобы знать, что он очень похож на языки Си и Паскаль, которые были его стихией. Убедившись еще раз, что Сьюзан и Стратмор продолжают разговаривать, Хейл начал импровизировать.
Мне не нужно напоминать. Через тридцать секунд она уже сидела за его столом и изучала отчет шифровалки.