Advantages And Disadvantages Of Food Irradiation Pdf
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Ionizing radiation effects on food vitamins - A Review. Ionizing radiation has been widely used in industrial processes, especially in the sterilization of medicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, and in food processing.
- Food irradiation
- Some Pros and Cons of Food Irradiation
- Introduction to Food Irradiation and Medical Sterilization
- 6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Food Irradiation
Food irradiation is the application of ionizing radiation to edible products. This technology improves the safety of the items we eat while extending the shelf life of numerous articles.
Food irradiation is the application of ionizing radiation to edible products. This technology improves the safety of the items we eat while extending the shelf life of numerous articles. It can reduce or eliminate insects or microorganisms that can impact the quality of items. Unless there are exceptional circumstances to an outcome from food irradiation, it would be appropriate to compare this process to pasteurization or the canning of fruits and vegetables to preserve them.
Several food irradiation advantages and disadvantages are worth reviewing when looking add this technology. Food irradiation prevents foodborne illnesses. We use food irradiation to make the items we eat safer. This technology effectively eliminates organisms that commonly cause foodborne illness. It is most effective against salmonella and E-coli. This benefit also gives us a way to inactivate or destroy organisms that cause spoilage or decomposition.
It is the reason why are food products last as long as they do while the incidents of food-related sickness continue to decline. It controls the number of insect exposures to food products. Food irradiation can destroy insects that are in or on top of tropical fruits that enter the import and export markets.
This process also decreases the need to use pesticides and other chemical control practices that could harm the produce or create toxicity issues in humans. Because bugs and parasites can also adversely impact human health, we have more confidence in the safety of fresh foods today because of the ways that ionizing radiation can protect us. This process can control ripening and sprouting times. Food irradiation can delay the ripening of fruits and vegetables so that the longevity of each product can maximize its potential for use.
This advantage can also inhibit sprouting behaviors that occur with onions and potatoes. It is a benefit that helps families extend the value of their food purchases without making several grocery store runs each month. With correct storage techniques, most items can last for at least a week — and sometimes, significantly longer. Food irradiation gives us the option to sterilize foods. We can use food irradiation to give us the benefit of sterilization.
Sterilized foods can be stored for several years without the need for refrigeration. This product is useful in hospitals for patients who have severely impaired immune systems, including individuals who are undergoing chemotherapy or dealing with HIV or AIDS.
We can also use this process to create emergency nutritional items when households are communities get cut off from modern resources. The foods that receive sterilization by irradiation get exposed to a substantially higher level of ionizing radiation then what gets approved for regular use.
Higher levels of food irradiation can kill all contaminants. When processors use high levels of food irradiation to preserve the items we eat, then this process can kill mold and other potentially harmful microorganisms. Although different countries set domestic standards for what is permissible with this technology, over 40 nations now have regulations in place that permit its use.
The United States has a considerable number of foods that are approved for irradiation. Australia is on the other end of that spectrum, with only herbs, spices, herbal infusions, and some tropical fruits recommended for this process.
That means we can use this technology to reduce or eliminate the need for chemicals to control the pests that bother certain crops. This technology works on fresh and frozen foods. Food irradiation is useful for fresh or frozen foods. When this preservation method gets applied to poultry or red meat, then doses of 3 to 4.
The FDA extended the approval for the irradiation of meat in to cover unrefrigerated products. The shelf life benefits for animal proteins are tremendous when following these dosage practices.
Shrimp packed in ice have a standard shelf life of 7 days. Oysters go from 15 days under refrigeration to up to 28 days. We cannot irradiate some food products. Some food products are unable to go through the food irradiation process.
The reason for this disadvantage is because the ionizing radiation creates significant changes in the flavor or texture of the item. Eggs and dairy foods are the most common exceptions to the benefits of this technology. If you want to promote high levels of food safety, then look for dairy items that went through pasteurization processes to ensure lower levels of exposure risk. It can change the nutritional profile of some foods.
Food irradiation causes minimal changes to the chemical composition of the foods that we eat. This loss is often compared to what happens when foods go through a cooking or preservation process in more traditional ways, such as blanching or canning. Thiamine is the one vitamin that reacts adversely when exposed to food irradiation.
You can find it in meat, beans, and whole grains. Proponents of this technology say that vitamin reductions are not enough to create a deficiency, but this disadvantage must still come under consideration. Minimal labeling requirements exist for food irradiation. Most people do not know whether or not the foods they are eating have received a dose of ionizing radiation.
Some nations are working to change this disadvantage by requiring a label with a statement that the food, ingredients, or components were treated in this manner. In Australia, if a food product does not have a label, then a statement regarding the use of ionizing radiation must be displayed in close proximity to the item.
There can be resistant strains of bacteria to the irradiation process. Food irradiation is a processing technology that exposes microorganisms to ionizing radiation. If an inadequate dose gets received, then it increases the risk of resistance developing within the evolutionary path of the bacteria in question.
It is a process that follows a similar journey that doctors are concerned about with antibiotics. If mutations occur among microbial strains, then we could end up creating even more dangerous bacteria.
It may also create more issues with adaptability. No food preservation method is good enough for anyone to take an utterly risk-free bite. If you serve undercooked meat or eggs, then there will still be a risk of bacteria exposure. Irradiation might vastly reduce the number of pathogens that are in individual products, but we still need to follow safe handling and cooking rules.
The cost of food irradiation is an issue to consider. This disadvantage exists because of the upfront costs that are necessary to build a facility that uses this technology.
When stores began to offer irradiated beef in the early s, the price to consumers almost doubled. There is a significant concern among food safety agencies that consumers will consider irradiated items as being automatically safe to eat.
The problem with this stance is that irradiation technologies are not a substitute for healthy growing and processing practices. Irradiation cannot eliminate the pesticides or other chemicals that might be in the food. Food irradiation is a single treatment option that provides benefits only when the rest of the distribution chain also includes safety precautions. Food irradiation is not effective against viruses. Irradiation processes are not going to keep food perfectly safe.
It does not guarantee the complete elimination of microorganisms. And although it reduces bacteria levels effectively, this technology is not useful when it comes to prions or viruses.
That means you could still end up dealing with an issue like Mad Cow Disease even though the beef went through a complete irradiation process. It can eliminate spoilage warning signals from our foods. Critics of food irradiation suggest that this technology could make it more challenging to determine if the foods we eat have spoiled. This potential disadvantage occurs because the elements that dictate oxidization and other indicators of rod get destroyed.
Nothing will cause food to remain safe indefinitely, even when ionizing radiation is presented in a high enough dose to offer sterilization. That means we must still recognize the signs and symptoms of spoilage even when there may not be any visual indicators. Inconsistent global standards are currently in place for our foods. Different countries and regions have set unique standards for food irradiation that others do not follow. The United States has regulations in place for the use of ionizing radiation on numerous nutritional categories.
Countries like New Zealand and Australia have strict standards that apply to only a few food groups. Labeling requirements are different all over the world, which also creates confusion about what is safe to eat and what is not. Food irradiation breaks chemical bonds, and new molecules can form. The goal of food irradiation is to remove toxic and dangerous components from our food items. When we apply this technology to certain foods, then hazardous outcomes can result because exposure to ionizing radiation breaks chemical bonds, allowing new molecules to form.
Although most foods have not been identified or tested for this disadvantage, we know that irradiated starch does form formaldehyde as a result. Irradiated meat can form benzene, while peroxides in plant tissues can rise. Even sucrose develops formic acid. We currently have 3 sources of radiation approved for use on food products. Gamma rays get emitted from radioactive forms of cobalt or cesium. It is routinely used to sterilize dental and medical products.
It is also the primary option used for the radiation treatment of cancer. X-rays and electron beams are the other two methods currently used by the food industry. They have yet to find a process within this technology that creates the potential for harm.
The World Health Organization also supports this finding. It is currently approved for use on beef, pork, produce, poultry, and some mollusks and shellfish.
Some Pros and Cons of Food Irradiation
This chapter is comprehensive overview of sterilization and disinfectant processes used for food-borne disease control and medical sterilization. Pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and endospores are described along with other infectious agents. The processes for controlling these infectious agents in food are summarized. These processes include not only irradiation by the two most important processes, electron beam and gamma ray, but by other processes such as ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared radiation. Medical sterilization and disinfectant processes are reviewed.
Irradiation, carried out under conditions of Good Manufacturing Practice, is an effective, widely applicable food processing method judged to be safe on extensive available evidence, that can reduce the risk of food poisoning, control food spoilage and extend the shelf-life of foods without detriment to health and with minimal effect on nutritional or sensory quality. This view has been endorsed by international bodies such as the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organisation and Codex Alimentarius. More than 50 countries have given approval for over 60 products to be irradiated. Currently regulations on food irradiation in the European Union are not fully harmonised. However, this initial positive list has only one food category — dried aromatic herbs, spices and vegetable seasonings. Some countries, such as Belgium, France, The Netherlands and the UK allow other foods to be irradiated, whereas other countries, such as Denmark, Germany and Luxembourg remain opposed. Within the UK seven categories of foods are cleared for irradiation to specified doses.
potential role in the reduction of post-harvest losses, providing safe supply of food and overcoming quarantine barriers, food irradiation has received wider.
Introduction to Food Irradiation and Medical Sterilization
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation , such as from gamma rays, x-rays, or electron beams, without direct contact to the food product. Some bonds rupture and produce free radicals which are highly reactive and unstable. They instantaneously rejoin with neighboring compounds and the results are called radiolytic compounds. Food irradiation is permitted in over 60 countries, and about , metric tons of food are processed annually worldwide.
Is irradiation safe? Proponents insist it is; opponents argue it is not. Here is a summary of the positions of proponents and opponents on safety and other issues related to irradiation.
6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Food Irradiation
Irradiation does not make foods radioactive, compromise nutritional quality, or noticeably change the taste, texture, or appearance of food. In fact, any changes made by irradiation are so minimal that it is not easy to tell if a food has been irradiated. Food irradiation the application of ionizing radiation to food is a technology that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. Like pasteurizing milk and canning fruits and vegetables, irradiation can make food safer for the consumer. The Food and Drug Administration FDA is responsible for regulating the sources of radiation that are used to irradiate food. The FDA approves a source of radiation for use on foods only after it has determined that irradiating the food is safe.
What Is Food Irradiation? The Regulatory History of Food Irradiation Summary of Part I Scientific Concerns about Irradiation
There is no question that there is a great deal of controversy on the subject of food irradiation advantages and disadvantages. With food irradiation, the goal is to establish safe food supplies. In doing so, people will be able to maintain confidence in the foods that they have eaten. However, there are a number of advantages and disadvantages to consider. Food irradiation also suffers from something of an image crisis. However, when it comes to the subject of food irradiation advantages and disadvantages, you are going to find the subject to be far more complex than mere perception. Immune Deficiency Benefits Those who suffer from a disease that depresses the immune system, which can occur through meds or the disease itself, can become ill from the most general food contaminants.
Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food e. It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade.
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