dictionary of dna and genome technology pdf

Dictionary Of Dna And Genome Technology Pdf

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Dictionary of DNA and Genome Technology [1ed.]1405156074, 9781405156073, 9781405156080

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Calls for Proposals Latest Calls Archive. Genome Glossary A glossary of genetic terms including acronyms and abbreviations. See also: complex trait adenine Adenine A A nitrogenous base, one member of the base pair AT adenine-thymine. See also: base pair , nucleotide adsorption Adsorption Accumulation of molecules or cells on the surface of a substance. Aerosols impact climate by scattering or absorbing radiation, initiating cloud formation, or altering the optical properties of clouds.

Algae can exist in many sizes ranging from single cells to giant kelps several feet long. A computer program typically consists of several algorithms. A population or species of organisms typically includes multiple alleles at each locus distributed among various individuals; except very rarely, each individual can have only two alleles at a given locus. Allelic variation at a locus is measurable as the number of alleles polymorphism present, or the proportion of heterozygotes in the population.

See also: locus , gene expression allogeneic Allogeneic Variation in alleles among members of the same species. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and hence protein function are determined by the genetic code. See also: cloning , polymerase chain reaction anaerobic Anaerobic Lacking or not requiring oxygen.

See also: bioinformatics anthropogenic Anthropogenic Resulting from human activity. See also: transcription archaea Archaea Single-celled prokaryotic microbes that are structurally and metabolically similar to bacteria but share some features of their molecular biology with eukaryotes.

The archaea are a distinct branch of life from the Bacteria and Eukarya. Each primary clone can be identified by the identity of the plate and the clone location row and column on that plate.

Arrayed libraries of clones can be used for many applications, including screening for a specific gene or genomic region of interest. See also: library , genomic library , gene chip technology assembly Assembly Putting sequenced fragments of DNA into their correct chromosomal positions.

ATPadenosinetriphosphate ATP adenosine triphosphate A multifunctional nucleotide responsible for cellular energy transfer and storage.

Axenic culture is an important tool for the study of symbiotic and parasitic organisms in a controlled manner. Also used to describe the breeding protocol of an outcross followed by a backcross. Based on naturally occurring F-factor plasmid found in the bacterium E.

See also: cloning vector bacteriophage Bacteriophage See: phage bacterioplankton Bacterioplankton Bacteria that inhabit marine and freshwater environments. See also: nucleotide , base pair , base sequence basepair Base pair bp Two nitrogenous bases adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine held together by weak bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs. Bayesianapproach Bayesian approach Use of statistical methods that assign probabilities or distributions to future events based on knowledge of prior events.

Especially important in analyzing genomic research data. See also: informatics biologicalpump Biological pump Collection of biological ocean processes that regulate the uptake, storage, transformation, and release of carbon.

In aquatic environments, a biome is defined by a particular range of depths and biogeochemical properties. In particular, biotechnology refers to the use by industry of recombinant DNA, cell fusion, and new bioprocessing techniques. Biotic components include plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. Computer program that, when given any nucleotide or amino acid protein sequence, returns similar sequences retrieved from a chosen query database, usually the non-redundant database which houses all submitted DNA or Protein sequences without duplication of a given sequence.

C3plant C 3 plant Plants e. Compared with C 4 plants, C 3 plants show a greater increase in photosynthesis with a doubling of CO 2 concentration and less decrease in stomatal conductance, which results in an increase in leaf-level water use efficiency. C4plant C 4 plant Plants e. Compared with C 3 plants, C 4 plants show little photosynthetic response to increased CO 2 concentrations above ppmv but show a decrease in stomatal conductance, which results in an increase in photosynthetic water use efficiency.

See also: positional cloning , protein capillaryarray Capillary array Gel-filled silica capillaries used to separate fragments for DNA sequencing. The small diameter of the capillaries permit the application of higher electric fields, providing high speed, high throughput separations that are significantly faster than traditional slab gels. CO 2 is emitted from a variety of processes e. CO 2 is a greenhouse gas that absorbs infrared radiation and traps heat in Earth's atmosphere.

Calvincycle Calvin cycle A series of photosynthetic chemical reactions that do not require light to occur. The Calvin cycle uses energy produced by light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis to incorporate carbon from carbon dioxide into organic compounds used to make sugars, starches, and other biological molecules.

The global flow of carbon from one reservoir carbon sink to another. Each carbon exchange among reservoirs is mediated by a variety of physical, biogeochemical, and human activities. CO 2 is a greenhouse gas that absorbs infrared radiation and traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere. For example, if the net exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere is toward the atmosphere, the biosphere is the source, and the atmosphere is the sink.

The sequences are generated in the laboratory from mRNA sequences. See also: messenger RNA cell Cell The basic unit of any living organism that carries on the biochemical processes of life. See also: genome , nucleus cellulose Cellulose Linear polysaccharide polymer with many glucose monosaccharide units. Cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls and the most abundant biological material on Earth. See also: megabase centromere Centromere A specialized chromosome region to which spindle fibers attach during cell division.

Chemostats keep bacterial cultures in an optimal growth state by continually adding media and removing old cells. These can be mutated cells of the host organism or cells from a different organism or species.

These molecules bind selectively to the target DNA. Once bound, the chimeraplast activates a naturally occurring gene-correcting mechanism. Does not use viral or other conventional gene-delivery vectors. See also: cloning vector chlorophyll Chlorophyll A type of green pigment used to harness light energy in the chloroplasts of plants and other photosynthetic organisms. It contains chlorophyll and functions in photosynthesis and protein synthesis.

The gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to the rest of the chromosome. In prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA is circular, and the entire genome is carried on one chromosome. Eukaryotic genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins. Climate is largely determined by local geographical features, latitude, altitude, land- and sea-masses, and atmospheric circulation patterns. The resulting cloned copied collections of DNA molecules are called clone libraries.

A second type of cloning exploits the natural process of cell division to make many copies of an entire cell. The genetic makeup of these cloned cells, called a cell line, is identical to the original cell. See also: cloning vector cloningvector Cloning vector DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vector's capacity for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where the DNA can be reproduced in large quantities.

Examples are plasmids, cosmids, and yeast artificial chromosomes; vectors are often recombinant molecules containing DNA sequences from several sources. See also: recessive gene codon Codon See: genetic code cofactor Cofactor An organic or inorganic substance required by an enzyme to function.

May involve the interaction of two or more genes or gene-environment interactions. See also: Mendelian inheritance , additive genetic effects computationalbiology Computational biology Development and application of data-analysis and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling, and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological systems. See also: bioinformatics conservedhypotheticalproteins Conserved hypothetical proteins The often large fraction of genes in sequenced genomes encoding proteins that are found in organisms from several phylogenetic lineages but have not been functionally characterized and described at the protein chemical level.

These structures may represent up to half of the potential protein coding regions of a genome. Cosmids can be packaged in lambda phage particles for infection into E. Crenarchaea are the most abundant type of marine archaea. This process can result in an exchange of alleles between chromosomes. See also: recombination cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria Division of photosynthetic bacteria found in many environments, including oceans, fresh water, and soils.

Cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll a and other photosynthetic pigments in an intracellular system of membranes called thylakoids. Many cyanobacterial species also are capable of nitrogen fixation.

See also: karyotype cytologicalband Cytological band An area of the chromosome that stains differently from areas around it. See also: cytological map cytologicalmap Cytological map A type of chromosome map whereby genes are located on the basis of cytological findings obtained with the aid of chromosome mutations.

Results in offspring inheriting genetic material from only one parent. See also: base pair , nucleotide datawarehouse Data warehouse A collection of databases, data tables, and mechanisms to access the data on a single subject. See also: chromosome , mutation deletionmap Deletion map A description of a specific chromosome that uses defined mutations --specific deleted areas in the genome-- as 'biochemical signposts,' or markers for specific areas.

A small portion of nitrate or nitrite may be converted to nitrous oxide N 2 O , a potent greenhouse gas. Thousands of diatom species are known; most are unicellular, but some form colonies. Diatoms are responsible for a large portion of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in marine and freshwater environments. These unicellular microorganisms use a pair of dissimilar cellular appendages called flagella for motility. See also: haploid directedevolution Directed evolution A laboratory process used on isolated molecules or microbes to cause mutations and identify subsequent adaptations to novel environments.

DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. A pairs with T and C pairs with G. See also: base sequence analysis , genome sequence domain Domain A discrete portion of a protein with its own function. The combination of domains in a single protein determines its overall function.

See also: gene , genome doublehelix Double helix The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary nucleotides on opposing strands bond together. Draft sequence data are mostly in the form of large-sized base pair fragments whose approximate chromosomal locations are known.

Genomic Science Program

The initial deposition of a sequence record is referred to as version 1. If the sequence is updated, the version number is incremented but the accession number will remain constant. Most often used for the detection of copy number variation CNV , aCGH also has applications in gene annotation and diagnostics. Read more about aCGH. Mantripragada, K. Wong, K.

Glossary of Genomics Terms

Variations in clinical traits and phenotypes are allelic if they arise from the same gene sequence or locus and nonallelic if they arise from different gene sequences of different loci. Alternative splicing: Use of different exons in formation of mRNA from initially identical transcripts. This results in the generation of related proteins from one gene, often in a tissue or developmental stage—specific manner. Analytical validity: The likelihood that a test result is correct, ie, a specific variant said to be present is present or said to be absent is absent. Array: See Microarray.

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Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of biology focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism's complete set of DNA , including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics , which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of all of an organism's genes, their interrelations and influence on the organism. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.

Allele Frequency : The proportion of a particular allele among the chromosomes carried by individuals in a population. Amino acid : Any of a class of 20 molecules that are combined to form proteins in living things. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and hence protein function are determined by the genetic code. Amplification : An increase in the number of copies of a specific DNA fragment; can be in vivo or in vitro. Autosome : A chromosome not involved in sex determination.

What is genomic medicine?

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Dictionary of DNA and Genome Technology

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Genomic medicine is rapidly changing the future of medicine.


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