Integrating Quantitative And Qualitative Research In Development Projects Pdf
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Several strategies have been proposed to integrate qualitative and quantitative components in MM, but they are seldom well conceptualized and described.
- Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Development Projects
- Integrating quantitative and qualitative research in development projects
- Qualitative & Quantitative Research Similarities
Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Development Projects
A analytical approach should include a systematic procedures for identification and analysis of triangulation discrepanciesThe research design like integrated approach should permit time and resources to go return to the field to follow up the inconsistencies and provide insights on those. Follow-up fieldwork should be conducted to Examples include households or communities with higher or lower than expected incomes, deviations from the traditional sexual division of labor see chapter 8 referred to in the previous paragraph , or unusual responses to economic crises; 2.
The data gathered through case studies, wealth rankings, focus group reports, and other qualitative tools must be linked to, and compared with, survey findings. Different outcomes should be considered a major strength of the integrated approach rather than an annoyance. There is a strong case for the use of integrated research, because the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative methods often complement each other Valadez and Bamberger Many kinds of information are difficult to obtain especially with regard to sensitive issues such as sexual practices or income 2.
Samples of individuals, communities, or organizations can be selected to ensure that the results will be representative of the population studied. Many groups are difficult to reach for example, women, minorities, and children. Structural factors that determine how inequalities such as gender inequalities are produced and reproduced can be analysed. Information may be inaccurate or incomplete4. Quantitative estimates can be obtained of the magnitude and distribution of impact.
There is no information on contextual factors to help interpret the results or explain variations in behaviour between households with similar economic and demographic characteristics. Quantitative estimates can be obtained of the costs or benefits of intervention. Interview methods may alienate respondents. Clear documentation regarding the content and application of the survey instruments so that other researchers can assess the validity of the findings.
Different perspectives can be obtained. For example, while researchers may consider income or consumption to be the key indicators of household welfare, case studies may reveal that women are more concerned about vulnerability defined as the lack of access to social support systems in times of crises , powerlessness, or exposure to violence. There are many qualitative methods designed to analyze issues such as social process, institutional behavior, social structure, and conflict. Survey reports frequently include references to apparent inconsistencies in findings, or to interesting differences between communities or groups which cannot be explained by the data.
In most quantitative research, once the data collection phase is completed, it is not possible to return to the field to check on such questions. The greater flexibility of qualitative research means that it is often possible to return to the field to gather additional data.
Survey researchers frequently refer to the use of qualitative methods to check on outliers-responses that diverge from the general patterns. In many cases the data analyst has to make an arbitrary decision as to whether a household or community that reports conditions that are significantly above or below the norm should be excluded on the assumption that it reflects a reporting error or the figures adjusted.
Qualitative methods permit a rapid follow-up in the field to check on these cases. This follow-up visit revealed some extremely interesting findings. The perceived benefits of integrated research depend upon the researcher's background. From the perspective of the quantitative researcher, a qualitative component will first of all help to define key research issues and refine research hypotheses.
Second, the way in which questions are formulated can be adapted to the perceptions and language of respondents, which in turn can improve the reliability and validity of responses.
Third, the quantitative analysis of access to and use of project services and resources can be enhanced by analyzing the social, economic, and political context within which the project takes place. Fourth, it is possible to return to the field once data analysis is completed to clarify issues, follow up with outliers, and further explore interesting or unanticipated results.
A qualitative researcher will find different benefits to incorporating quantitative methods. First, sampling methods can be used where necessary to ensure that findings can be generalized to the total population.
Second, sample selection can be coordinated with on-going or earlier survey research so that findings from qualitative studies can be directly compared with survey findings. And, third, statistical analysis can be used to control for household characteristics and the socioeconomic conditions of different study areas, thereby eliminating alternative explanations of the observed outcomes.
Many qualitative researchers, on the other hand, continue to have reservations about the validity of survey research. Operational Approaches to the Integration of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods at Each Stage of the Research Process Integrated Approaches during Research DesignIn-depth interviews and household case studies can be helpful in defining concepts and question wording for the survey instruments. Operational Approaches to the Integration of Quantitative and Qualitative Methods at Each Stage of the Research Process Integrated Approaches during Data Analysis and InterpretationTraditionally, the analyst must make a judgment call as to whether these outliers are simply errors in reporting or whether they reveal important differences.
Several studies cited in this report used rapid follow-up studies to throw light on these questions in a way that is usually not possible. However, the surveys revealed that in one community the water supply project was managed by men. Study findings can be generalized to the population about which information is required.
Standardized approaches permit the study to be replicated in different areas or over time with the production of comparable findings. Research Methods are inflexible because the instrument cannot be modified once the study begins. It is possible to control for the effects of the extraneous variables that might result in misleading interpretation of causality. Table 33Frequently Cited Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research MethodsStrengthsWeaknesses It is easier to reach difficult -to access population such as minorities, squatters or women, etc.
It is difficult to attribute to responses in a group interview to specific individuals. Research methods can be adapted to the culture of the respondents. Nonwritten and nonverbal responses are possible. It is difficult to control whether a reviewer is imposing responses. Flexibility on how the methods are applied and ease in adapting to changing circumstances.
The implementation of many methods is not well documented, making them difficult to validate and replicate 2. Qualitative studies are considered by many to be faster and cheaper to conduct 2. Subjects are often selected without the use of sampling and without any defined criteria so it can be difficult to generalized from the results. Responses can be placed in a cultural and political context.
It is difficult to analyse and interpret large number of cases studies. Most research methods do not impose responses 6. Some methods may not be culturally appropriate 7. Information can be obtained from groups as well as individuals 7. Related Papers. By veronica jones. Evaluating the Sustainable Development Goals with a "No one left behind" lens through equity-focused and gender-responsive evaluations.
By Fernando de Almeida. By Haastrup Haazy Adebanjo. Utilizing Mixed Methods in Psychological Research. By Abbas Tashakkori. Download file. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
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Integrating quantitative and qualitative research in development projects
This section describes the tools and techniques that are used in quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods involve the collection and analysis of objective data, often in numerical form. The research design is determined prior to the start of data collection and is not flexible. The research process, interventions and data collection tools e. Table 8 provides an overview of quantitative data collection strategies. Qualitative research is generally used to explore values, attitudes, opinions, feelings and behaviours of individuals and understand how these affect the individuals in question.
Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables — and generalize results from a larger sample population. Sample research proposals written by doctoral students in each of the key areas covered in Research Design--quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods—are provided as a useful reference. A Research Proposal checklist also serves to help guide your own proposal-writing. This research problem can also be used to generate the research question used to the conduct the research itself. Methodology Instead of collecting data through surveys, interviews, or clinical records, as you would in a quantitative or qualitative study, the data you collect is the literature produced on your topic.
Qualitative & Quantitative Research Similarities
SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field.
Research is an important part of operating a business. Whether the research is for marketing purposes or to determine future possible growth, research helps a business plan its course. Two types of research are the most popular forms a business uses. Qualitative research seeks to understand why people react and how they feel about a specific situation. Quantitative research measures numerical results to help predict possible outcomes.
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Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have their specific qualities which make them useful to a researcher, however in the course of this short essay I will explain why, for several reasons, qualitative research is better.
ГЛАВА 79 Стратмор спрятал пейджер в карман и, посмотрев в сторону Третьего узла, протянул руку, чтобы вести Сьюзан за. - Пошли. Но их пальцы не встретились.
Фонд понятия не имеет о том, чем мы тут занимаемся, - презрительно бросил Стратмор. - Если бы они знали, сколько террористических нападений мы предотвратили благодаря тому, что можем взламывать шифры, они запели бы по-другому.