revolt of 1857 and cause and effect pdf

Revolt Of 1857 And Cause And Effect Pdf

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Indian Mutiny , also called Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence , widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in — In India it is often called the First War of Independence and other similar names. To regard the rebellion merely as a sepoy mutiny is to underestimate the root causes leading to it.

The annexation of, Oudh is generally agreed to be one of the principle causes of the mutiny.

Causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857

Indian Mutiny , also called Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence , widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in — In India it is often called the First War of Independence and other similar names.

To regard the rebellion merely as a sepoy mutiny is to underestimate the root causes leading to it. British paramountcy—i. The British increasingly used a variety of tactics to usurp control of the Hindu princely states that were under what were called subsidiary alliances with the British. Everywhere the old Indian aristocracy was being replaced by British officials. One notable British technique was called the doctrine of lapse , first perpetrated by Lord Dalhousie in the late s.

It involved the British prohibiting a Hindu ruler without a natural heir from adopting a successor and, after the ruler died or abdicated , annexing his land. To those problems may be added the growing discontent of the Brahmans , many of whom had been dispossessed of their revenues or had lost lucrative positions. Another serious concern was the increasing pace of Westernization , by which Hindu society was being affected by the introduction of Western ideas.

Missionaries were challenging the religious beliefs of the Hindus. The humanitarian movement led to reforms that went deeper than the political superstructure. During his tenure as governor-general of India —56 , Lord Dalhousie made efforts toward emancipating women and had introduced a bill to remove all legal obstacles to the remarriage of Hindu widows.

Converts to Christianity were to share with their Hindu relatives in the property of the family estate. There was a widespread belief that the British aimed at breaking down the caste system. The introduction of Western methods of education was a direct challenge to orthodoxy, both Hindu and Muslim.

The mutiny broke out in the Bengal army because it was only in the military sphere that Indians were organized. The pretext for revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle. To load it, the sepoys had to bite off the ends of lubricated cartridges. There is no conclusive evidence that either of these materials was actually used on any of the cartridges in question.

However, the perception that the cartridges were tainted added to the larger suspicion that the British were trying to undermine Indian traditional society. For their part, the British did not pay enough attention to the growing level of sepoy discontent. In late March a sepoy named Mangal Pandey attacked British officers at the military garrison in Barrackpore.

He was arrested and then executed by the British in early April. Later in April sepoy troopers at Meerut refused the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were given long prison terms, fettered, and put in jail. This punishment incensed their comrades, who rose on May 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhi , where there were no European troops.

The seizure of Delhi provided a focus and set the pattern for the whole mutiny, which then spread throughout northern India. With the exception of the Mughal emperor and his sons and Nana Sahib , the adopted son of the deposed Maratha peshwa , none of the important Indian princes joined the mutineers.

Peace was officially declared on July 8, A grim feature of the mutiny was the ferocity that accompanied it. The mutineers commonly shot their British officers on rising and were responsible for massacres at Delhi, Kanpur, and elsewhere.

The murder of women and children enraged the British, but in fact some British officers began to take severe measures before they knew that any such murders had occurred. In the end the reprisals far outweighed the original excesses. Hundreds of sepoys were bayoneted or fired from cannons in a frenzy of British vengeance though some British officers did protest the bloodshed.

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The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes)

Inventing India pp Cite as. That those events should have come to be known by so many names illustrates the vastly different ways in which they have been interpreted, and suggests the general air of confusion, fuelled by emotion, which has always surrounded them. It was not an Indian Mutiny because the revolt was largely restricted to the northern regions of India. It was not simply a mutiny or rebellion by the Bengal sepoys, as many Victorians saw it, because, although it was by no means embraced by the whole population, it was not confined solely to the sepoys either. Nor was it truly envisaged as a war of independence, though it may well have been the seed which gave rise to the independence struggle in later years. It was perhaps a mixture of all these things — the truth lying somewhere between the extremes of contemporary imperialist interpretation and more recent nationalist interpretation.

The Revolt of was a prolonged period of armed uprising as well as rebellions in Northern and Central India against British occupation of that part of the subcontinent. Small precursors of brewing discontent involving incidences of arson in cantonment areas began to manifest themselves in January. Later, a large-scale rebellion broke out in May and turned into what may be called a full-fledged war in the affected region. The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of However, recent researches have proved that the cartridge was not the only cause for this revolt. In fact, multiple causes i.

The revolt of has a extraordinary place in the history of India. This was the first joint revolt against the British. It was the end result of the already simmering discontent of Indians against the policies of East India Company. The imperialist policy of the East India Company was an important factor. The Company interfered in the internal matters of Indian States and followed the policy of divide and rule. The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was applied not only to Princes but also big Zamindars.

• To explain the causes of the failure of the Revolt of • To Understand the Effects and the Consequences the Revolt of INTRODUCTION.

The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Nature, Importance and Outcomes

In ancient times, people from all over the world were keen to come to India. The Persians followed by the Iranians and Parsis immigrated to India. Then came the Moghuls and they too settled down permanently in India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times.

Causes of the Indian Rebellion of 1857

Каждый компьютер в мире, от обычных ПК, продающихся в магазинах торговой сети Радиошэк, и до систем спутникового управления и контроля НАСА, имеет встроенное страховочное приспособление как раз на случай таких ситуаций, называемое отключение из розетки. Полностью отключив электроснабжение, они могли бы остановить работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, а вирус удалить позже, просто заново отформатировав жесткие диски компьютера. В процессе форматирования стирается память машины - информация, программное обеспечение, вирусы, одним словом - все, и в большинстве случаев переформатирование означает потерю тысяч файлов, многих лет труда.

Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким. Три миллиона процессоров работали параллельно - считая с неимоверной скоростью, перебирая все мыслимые комбинации символов. Надежда возлагалась на то, что шифры даже с самыми длинными ключами не устоят перед исключительной настойчивостью ТРАНСТЕКСТА.

Causes of The First War of Indian Independence – 1857 Revolt

Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий.  - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито. Глаза Джаббы по-прежнему выражали шок и растерянность, когда сзади раздался душераздирающий крик: - Джабба. Джабба.

Остальные - все, что внизу. Мы ищем различие, выражаемое простым числом. Через несколько секунд всем стало ясно, что эта затея бессмысленна.



How did the Revolt break out? What were it causes? The main reason for this was the ruthless exploitation of the Indian people by the British. The British rule.



Lord Dalhousie was the Governor-General of India till


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