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Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, is the first authoritative reference book on both the theoretical and practical aspects of growing plants without the use of soil. It is the go-to source for those involved in this practice, focusing on hydroponics and advancements in technologies and methodologies. The book builds on the thorough presentation of both physical and chemical properties of various soilless growing media, also addressing how these properties affect plant performance in basic horticultural operations, such as irrigation and fertilization. In addition, the book describes the latest technical advancements and methodologies, including run-to-waste, re-circulation and closed systems. Crop and Plant researchers, agronomists, horticulturalists, greenhouse and nursery managers, extension specialists and those involved with soilless crop production.
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By Elsevier Science. Peter J. Theo H. Lorence R. Athanasios P. Kildare, Ireland. B , Ramat Yishay, , Israel. Uttam K. Since the onset of the commercial application of soilless culture, this production approach has evolved at a fast pace, gaining popularity among growers throughout the world. As a result, a lot of information has been developed by growers, advisors, researchers, and suppliers of equipment and substrate.
With the rapid advancement of the field, an authoritative reference book is needed to describe the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. Our goal for this book is to describe the state-of-the-art in the area of soilless culture and to suggest directions in which the field could be moving. This book provides the reader with background information of the properties of the various soilless media, how these media are used in soilless production, and how this drives plant performance in relation to basic horticultural operations such as irrigation and fertilization.
As we assemble this book, we are aware that many facets of the field are rapidly changing so that the state-of-the-art is continuing to advance. Several areas in particular are in flux. Two of these are 1 the advent of governmental pressures to force commercial soilless production systems to include recirculation of irrigation effluent and 2 a desire for society to use fewer agricultural chemicals in food production.
The authors that have contributed to this book are all aware of these factors, and their contributions to this book attempt to address the state-of-the-art. This book should serve as reference book or textbook for a wide readership including researchers, students, greenhouse and nursery managers, extension specialists; in short, all those who are involved in the production of plants and crops in systems where the root-zone contains predominantly of soilless media or no media at all.
It provides information concerning the fundamental principles involved in plant production in soilless culture and, in addition, may serve as a manual that describes many of the useful techniques that are constantly emerging in this field. In preparing this book, we were helped by many authorities in the various specialized fields that are covered. Each chapter was reviewed confidentially by prominent scholars in the respective fields. We take this opportunity to thank these colleagues who contributed their time and expertise to improve the quality of the book.
The responsibility, however, for the content of the book rests with the authors and editors. For both of us, the assembly of this book has been an arduous task in which we have had numerous discussions about the myriad of facets that make up this field.
This has served to stimulate in us a more in-depth respect for the field and a deeper appreciation for our many colleagues throughout the world. We are very appreciative of all the work that our authors invested to make this book the highest quality that we could achieve, and hope that after all the repeated requests from us for various things, that they are still our friends.
We also note that while no specific agency or company sponsored any of the effort to assemble this book, we are in debt to some extent to various funding sources that supported our research during the time of this book project.
Our own employers The Agricultural Research Organization of Israel and the University of California , of course, supported our efforts to create this work and for that we are deeply grateful. This chapter explains soilless culture and describes its significance in agriculture.
It begins with a historical account of facets of soilless culture in agriculture, suggesting that substrates used throughout the world differ significantly as to their make-up, while attempting to adhere to a specific set of principles. These principles are quite complex, relating to physical and chemical factors of solids, liquids, and gasses in the root zone of the plant. Today the largest industries in which soilless production dominates are greenhouse production of ornamentals and vegetables and outdoor container nursery production.
In urban horticulture, virtually all containerized plants are grown without any field soil. Following this, it deals with hydroponics, which simply means, growing plants without soil. Initially scientists used hydroponics mainly as a research tool to study particular aspects of plant nutrition and root function.
Progress in plastics manufacturing, automation, production of completely soluble fertilizers, and especially the development of many types of substrates complemented the scientific achievements and brought soilless cultivation to a viable commercial stage. Today various types of soilless systems exist for growing vegetables and ornamentals in greenhouses. This has resulted in a wide variety of growing systems. Finally, it presents an account of the current prevailing trends with respect to soilless media in agriculture, all over the world.
Although we normally think about soilless culture as a modern practice, growing plants in containers aboveground has been tried at various times throughout the ages. The Egyptians did it almost years ago. Wall paintings found in the temple of Deir el Bahari Naville showed what appears to be the first documented case of container-grown plants Fig. They were used to transfer mature trees from their native countries of origin to the king's palace and then to be grown this way when local soils were not suitable for the particular plant.
It is not known what type of growing medium was used to fill the containers, but since they were shown as being carried by porters over large distances, it is possible that materials used were lighter than pure soil.
Starting in the seventeenth century, plants were moved around, especially from the Far and Middle East to Europe to be grown in orangeries, in order to supply aesthetic value, and rare fruits and vegetables to wealthy people.
Orangeries can still be found today throughout Europe. An exquisite example of an organery from Dresden, Germany, is shown in Fig 1. The orangery at Pillnitz Palace near Dresden Germany was used to protect container-grown citrus trees during the winter. Large doors at the east side allowed trees to be moved in and out so that they could be grown outdoors during the summer and brought inside during the winter.
Large floor-to-ceiling windows on the south side allowed for sunlight to enter. As suggested by the name, the first plants to be grown in orangeries were different species of citrus. An artistic example can be seen in Fig. Two major steps were key to the advancement of the production of plants in containers. One was the understanding of plant nutritional requirements, pioneered by French and German scientists in the nineteenth century, and later perfected by mainly American and English scientists during the first half of the twentieth century.
As late as , British scientists still claimed that while it is possible to grow plants in silica sand using nutrient solutions, similarly treated soil-grown plants produced more yield and biomass Woodman and Johnson, a,b. It was not until the s that researchers developed complete nutrient solutions, coupled their use to appropriate rooting media and studied how to optimize the levels of nutrients, water and oxygen to demonstrate the superiority of soilless media in terms of yield Cooper, ; Verwer, The second major step was the realization that elimination of disease organisms that needed to be controlled through disinfestation was feasible in container-grown production while being virtually impossible in soil-grown plants.
In the United States, a key document was the description of a production system that provided a manual for the use of substrates in conjunction with disease control for production of container-grown plants in outdoor nursery production.
Entitled The U. System for Producing Healthy Container-grown Plants through the use of clean Soil, Clean Stock, and Sanitation Baker, , it was a breakthrough in container nursery production in the s and s and helped growers to such an extent that it became universally adopted since growers using the system had a dramatic economic advantage over competitors that did not use it.
This manual described several growing media mixes consisting of sand and organic matter such as peat, bark or sawdust in various specific percentages Matkin and Chandler, Thus, when we talk about soilless substrates in this book, they may include mineral components such as sand or clay that are also found in soil, but not soil directly. This notion was supported in the past by the fact that much of the development of ideal growing media was done by trial and error.
Today we have a fairly complete picture of the important physical and chemical characteristics described in Chaps. UC mix or through industrial manufacture e. Throughout the world there are many local and regional implementations of these concepts. These are generally driven by both horticultural and financial considerations.
While the horticultural considerations are covered in this book, the financial considerations are not. Yet this factor is ultimately the major driving force for the formulation of a particular substrate mix that ends up in use in a soilless production setting. Disposal of used substrates is, in some cases, another important consideration of both environmental and economical implications. For example, one of the major problems in the horticultural use of mineral wool stone- and glass-wool is its safe disposal, as it is not a natural resource that can be returned back to nature.
Various methods of stone wool recycling have been developed but they all put a certain amount of financial burden on the end-user. In countries where peat is readily available, perhaps even harvested locally, growers find this material to be less expensive than in countries where it has to be imported from distant locations.
In some years the financial situation may force consideration of a change. Since the properties of all substrates and mixes differ from each other, replacement of one particular component such as peat with another component might result in other costs or lower quality crops which may be valued less in the market place , especially if the substitution is with a material with which the grower has less experience. Thus growers throughout the world face the challenge of assembling mixes that will perform as desired at the lowest possible overall cost.
The result of this is that the substrates used throughout the world differ significantly as to their make-up, while attempting to adhere to a specific set of principles. These principles are quite complex, relating to physical and chemical factors of solids, liquids and gasses in the root zone of the plant.
Growing plants without soil has also been achieved through water culture without the use of any solid substrates. While this term was coined by Gericke to mean water culture without employing any substrate, currently the term is used to mean various things to various persons.
Many use the term to refer to systems that do include some sort of substrate to anchor or stabilize the plant and to provide an inert matrix to hold water.
Strictly speaking, however, hydroponics is the practice of growing plants in nutrient solutions. In addition to systems that use exclusively nutrient solution and air e. Thus we consider production systems with inert substrates such as stone wool or gravel to be hydroponic. Progress in plastics manufacturing, automation, production of completely soluble fertilizers and especially the development of many types of substrates complemented the scientific achievements and brought soilless cutivation to a viable commercial stage.
This has resulted with a wide variety of growing systems; the most important of these are described in Chap. World agriculture has changed dramatically over the last few decades, and this change continues, since the driving forces for these changes are still in place.
These forces consist of the rapid scientific, economic and technological development of societies throughout the world. The demand for floricultural crops, including cut flowers, pot plants and bedding plants, has also grown dramatically. The result of these trends was the expanded use of a wide variety of protected cultivation systems, ranging from primitive screen or plastic film covers to completely controlled greenhouses.
Initially this production was entirely in the ground where the soil had been modified so as to allow for good drainage. Since the production costs of protected cultivation are higher than that of open-field production, growers had to increase their production intensity to stay competitive.
This was achieved by several techniques; prominent among these is the rapid increase in soilless production relative to total agricultural crop production.
The major cause for shift away from the use of soil was the proliferation of soil-borne pathogens in intensively cultivated greenhouses. Soil was replaced by various substrates, such as stone wool, polyurethane, perlite, scoria tuff and so on, since they are virtually free of pests and diseases due to their manufacturing processes.
Also in reuse from crop to crop, these materials can be disinfested between uses so as to kill any microorganisms. The continuing shift to soilless cultivation is also driven by the fact that in soilless systems it is possible to have better control over several crucial factors, leading to greatly improved plant performance. Physical and hydraulic characteristics of most substrates are superior to those of soils.
A soil-grown plant experiences relatively high water availability immediately after irrigation.
Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Raviv and Israel J. Raviv , Israel J. Heinrich Lieth Published Engineering. Soilless Culture provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the ph properties of the various soilless growing media and how these properties affe in relation to basic horticultural operations such as irrigation and fertilization. A horticulture associated with soilless plant production change in the near future changes in substrates, systems and in the approaches to their management.
Soilless Culture: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, is the first authoritative reference book on both the theoretical and practical aspects of growing plants without the use of soil. It is the go-to source for those involved in this practice, focusing on hydroponics and advancements in technologies and methodologies. The book builds on the thorough presentation of both physical and chemical properties of various soilless growing media, also addressing how these properties affect plant performance in basic horticultural operations, such as irrigation and fertilization. In addition, the book describes the latest technical advancements and methodologies, including run-to-waste, re-circulation and closed systems. Sign up to our newsletter and receive discounts and inspiration for your next reading experience.
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By Elsevier Science. Peter J. Theo H.
Для этого нужен был политический иммунитет - или, как в случае Стратмора, политическая индифферентность. Сьюзан поднялась на верхнюю ступеньку лестницы. Она не успела постучать, как заверещал электронный дверной замок.
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Соши прочитала снова: - …Искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан. - Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана. Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись.