zoo animal nutrition tables and guidelines pdf

Zoo Animal Nutrition Tables And Guidelines Pdf

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Nutrition: Exotic and Zoo Animals

NCBI Bookshelf. These departments are generally responsible for the exhibition, day-to-day care, and health of the animal collection NZP, Best Practices, The Animal Programs Department is generally responsible for the exhibition of the animals, day-to-day care of the animals, and development of the animal collection NZP, Department of Animal Programs — Best Practices, The Department of Animal Health consists of the veterinary staff at the animal hospital, as well as the nutrition and commissary staff.

This department is responsible for the health of the animal collection: proper nutrition, preventive medicine, and health care NZP, Department of Animal Health — Best Practices, The Department of Pathology provides clinical laboratory and postmortem diagnosis and research to identify diseases that are occurring at the National Zoo and determine how they can be controlled or prevented NZP, Department of Pathology — Best Practices, Within the Animal Programs Department, the animal collection is grouped into eight units, by either species type or exhibit location:.

The Animal Programs Department is headed by a general curator, who is assisted by two associate curators, each with oversight responsibility of four units. Each unit is managed by an assistant curator. The eight assistant curators, manage the activities of the animal keepers assigned to each respective unit.

Responsibilities for animal care and management are divided among the staff as follows:. Keepers are responsible for independently providing the day-to-day care and maintenance of animals and the exhibits in which they are housed. Their duties also consist of other activities such as assisting with research and breeding programs, interacting with zoo visitors, and developing training and enrichment programs. The assistant curators are responsible for the conception, formulation, leadership, and conduct of all animal care, breeding, conservation, exhibition, and associated public education for a designated portion of the animal collection called a unit.

Their primary duties include Position Description — Supervisory Biologist :. Each associate curator oversees 50 percent of the animal collection units, with responsibility for the conception, formulation, leadership, and conduct of all animal care, breeding, conservation, exhibition, and associated public education. Specific responsibilities as listed in the NZP Position Description are essentially identical to those described for assistant curators Position Description — Associate Curator.

The general curator has authority and is responsible for participating with and assisting the director and senior management team in the overall planning, direction, and management of NZP programs and activities in the exhibition, study, and care of the living animal collections at the Rock Creek Park facility Position Description — General Curator.

Zoos differ from some museums in that they have the challenge of maintaining the health and welfare of living animal collections. Zoo animal medicine has made remarkable advances over the past century, in part because zoos have evolved from mere collections of exotic animals to centers of research in animal biology and disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The first book on zoo animal medicine was written in Fox, Until , when the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians AAZV was established, few veterinarians were concerned with wildlife disease and captive animal medicine Fowler, a.

The level of sophistication in zoo animal medicine and husbandry is now such that the care provided to zoo animals is on a level with that provided to companion and other domestic animals. These improvements have resulted not only from research, but also from specialized training of veterinarians in zoo animal medicine, publications devoted to zoo animal medicine, establishment of national zoological organizations, and an increased awareness of both physical and psychological needs of captive wild animals.

Zoos are increasingly becoming leaders in the science of conservation biology and in the practice of preserving rare and endangered species and their habitats. Although variation exists between facilities, modern zoos have accepted certain minimum standards AAZV, ; AZA, c related to the veterinary medical care provided to animals in their collections:.

Preventive medical programs include all practices that strengthen genetic and immunologic resistance to disease, provide sound nutrition, and minimize exposure to disease agents Fowler, b. The ultimate goal of a preventive medicine program is prevention and early detection of disease Miller, ; AAZV, Fowler describes a sound program as one that involves a written plan, education and training of all parties expected to carry it out, continued monitoring, and persistence in the practice of the plan Fowler, b.

An optimum preventive medicine program is reviewed and upgraded annually to reflect collection and species-specific health concerns Miller, and it covers the elements listed in Table At the Rock Creek Park facility there are two additional veterinarians: a former veterinary resident, who is on a one-year appointment, and a veterinary resident.

In total there are five practicing clinical veterinarians that provide veterinary medical care to the animal collection. A research veterinarian provides additional support to the clinical veterinarian at the CRC when necessary. The Rock Creek Park veterinary staff is supported by three keepers and two veterinary technicians. The CRC veterinarian is supported by one veterinary technician.

The keepers are responsible for the daily feeding of the animals currently housed in the hospital, cleaning and maintaining the enclosures, and assisting the veterinarians NZP, Department of Animal Health Procedures—Hospitalized Animal Procedures, The veterinary technicians are responsible for ordering and dispensing all pharmaceuticals, documenting anesthesia and prescription records, and providing technical assistance to the veterinary staff NZP, Department of Animal Health Procedures—Veterinary Technician Medical Records, The Rock Creek Park veterinary facility functions on a seven-day work week, with staggered schedules for the veterinarians, keepers, and technicians.

The clinical staff works from a well-equipped facility that fulfills the recommendations for veterinary facilities outlined by the AAZV Additionally, the National Zoo employs two veterinarians in the Department of Pathology supported by two laboratory technicians one technician position currently vacant.

Currently the Department of Animal Health has a structured work plan for active case management. Each animal within the hospital is inspected at least twice daily by the veterinary hospital keeper and at least once daily by a veterinarian. Daily rounds are held with the entire hospital staff and often a member of the Pathology Department.

During rounds each animal being acutely managed by the hospital is discussed, procedures planned for that day, as well as scheduling for procedures in the future. In addition to daily rounds, the veterinary staff maintains an active case log of both acute cases and chronic cases.

This log is updated daily by all veterinarians on clinical service. The veterinary staff meets twice weekly to discuss the management of all cases in the log. In addition to providing medical treatment to injured or ill animals, the Department of Animal Health is mandated by zoo policy and by professional organizations to establish a preventive medicine program AAZV, ; AZA, c.

The preventive medicine program at the National Zoo includes quarantine, parasite surveillance procedures and control, immunization, infectious disease screening, and dental prophylaxis National Zoological Park Preventative Medicine Program, , , , With three full-time veterinarians and two temporary veterinarians, the National Zoo maintains a larger clinical veterinary staff than many other zoos of similar age, size, and animal collection number.

For example, the year-old acre Milwaukee County Zoo, with an animal collection of approximately 2, representing over species, employs two full-time clinical veterinarians. Approximately veterinarians are employed by the AZA-accredited zoos with on-site veterinary staff Amand, It is important to note that clinical veterinarians at most other zoos also function as the onsite pathologist performing necropsies, collecting postmortem diagnostic samples, and assigning gross pathologic diagnoses in addition to their clinical duties, because most zoos do not have full-time veterinary pathologists or a pathology department Citino, Unlike most zoo veterinarians, the clinical veterinarians at the National Zoo do not have responsibility for pathology because the National Zoo employs two additional full-time veterinary pathologists in addition to its staff of clinical veterinarians.

Other zoos utilize schools of veterinary medicine or commercial laboratories for pathology needs. To assess the quality of veterinary medical care at the National Zoo, members of the committee met with veterinary staff, keepers, and curators; examined written policies and procedures of the Department of Animal Health; evaluated the medical records of select animals currently in the collection, as well as the medical records of particular animals that were brought to the attention of the committee; reviewed the scientific literature; and gathered information on preventive medicine and animal care from other zoological institutions.

This process is ongoing and the committee will continue to gather information for the preparation of its final report. However, the information evaluated during the first six months of the project has revealed serious deficiencies in the preventive medicine program at the National Zoo and isolated incidents of unacceptable veterinary care.

To date, the committee has reviewed the majority of the animal deaths at the National Zoo that were brought to the public's and Congress's attention through media coverage. In the committee's opinion, after a review of medical and pathology records, many of these deaths were due to the advanced age of the animals or preexisting conditions and the medical care provided was adequate and in some cases well beyond any reasonable expectation of care.

However, the committee did see evidence of a lack of veterinary knowledge regarding the physiology and nutrition of hoofstock see Box and lapses in veterinary care that was provided to an African bush elephant see Box Zebras should be fed a diet containing percent crude protein and more On August 22, , an East African bush elephant named Nancy was euthanatized because of her advanced age, severity of her clinical symptoms, and more A review of zoo documents indicates that the veterinary department has been failing to follow various aspects of the preventive medicine program.

There have been numerous examples of failures to follow quarantine procedures and provide appropriate vaccinations, infectious disease testing, and annual examinations. The purpose of quarantine procedures is to prevent the introduction of pathogens to a zoo when a new animal is added to the collection AAZV, Depending on the species, these quarantine procedures include fecal, blood, and tuberculin tests; vaccinations; and serology tests for specific pathogens AAZV, ; AZA, c.

In reviewing a sample of 26 medical records the committee found six instances from where veterinary staff failed to document any procedures or tests to which the animals were subjected during quarantine see Table , although the quarantine procedures outlined in the National Zoo Preventative Medicine Program were comprehensive and in accordance with recognized standards AAZV, ; AZA, c. It appears that zoo policies and quarantine procedures may have been violated on several occasions when staff-owned pets were brought onto National Zoo grounds to have tests performed at the Animal Hospital.

Staff members of the Department of Pathology have indicated that most tests performed on staff pets were performed as a professional courtesy, with the approval of the head clinical veterinarian and head pathologist; occasional tests were performed to determine whether an infectious disease was present that could be passed from the pet to a zoo collection animal by way of the staff person Montali, It is outside the purview of this committee to comment on whether performing laboratory tests on staff pets as a professional courtesy is a legally acceptable practice at the National Zoo.

If staff pets were brought onto National Zoo grounds to perform tests as a professional courtesy, this action represents a potential risk to the zoo collection and a violation of the zoo's own policies and procedures.

Since , there have been numerous examples of failure to provide vaccinations, tuberculosis tests, and annual physical exams. A summary of information depicting poor adherence to the preventive medical program for 16 animals derived from a sample of 26 individual medical records of major animal groups at the National Zoo is provided in Table It is possible that veterinary decisions were made not to vaccinate or not to test certain animals based on their current medical status; however, if these decisions were made, they were not documented in the medical record as should have been done.

A recent USDA inspection USDA, b noted that a majority of small primates had not received their annual preventive care exam as outlined by National Zoo standard operating procedures. The National Zoo has acknowledged that from the spring of through the fall of that veterinary staff failed to adhere to their preventive medicine program due to a staffing gap NZP, Letter to Committee, December 31, In the case of the East African elephant, failure to administer an annual tuberculosis test resulted in the failure to diagnose an active case of tuberculosis see Box It is unacceptable for preventive care to be delayed in this fashion.

In particular, this elephant was being seen by a veterinarian on an almost daily basis during the fall of and had already been trained to submit to a tuberculosis test NZP, Medical Records, Accession , East African bush Elephant.

Guidelines developed by the AAZV state that the veterinary medical program at a zoo should emphasize disease prevention. If the failure to provide preventive care to the National Zoo's animal collection was caused by a shortage of staff or the inability of the veterinary staff to implement and follow the National Zoo's preventive medicine program, steps should have been taken immediately by senior management to rectify the situation, either by hiring more temporary or permanent veterinary staff, using existing veterinarians on the research staff to alleviate the backlog of preventive medicine procedures if these veterinarians are suitably licensed to practice veterinary medicine in Washington, D.

The inability of the National Zoo's veterinary staff to provide vaccinations and annual exams because of time or staffing shortages is not a sound scientific or medical reason for varying from the recognized standard of care outlined in the generally accepted standards preventive medicine guidelines.

During the past year the Department of Animal Health has taken steps to begin to improve the implementation of the preventive medicine program. However, as of December 29, , not all of the collection had received scheduled examinations, vaccinations, or tests that were indicated in the National Zoo's Preventative Medicine Program Though veterinary staff members are in the process of updating their preventive medicine program, they have yet to create a document that describes the current vaccinations, tests, and exams that are planned for each species.

It is imperative for the National Zoo to take steps to immediately handle the backlog of procedures outlined by the preventive medicine program and to ensure that adequate preventive medicine is provided in the future. It is also important for the program to be reevaluated continually, based on new information Miller, ; Fowler, b. For example, vaccination to prevent leptospirosis a disease transmitted by the intake of feed or water contaminated with the urine of an infected animal, often a rodent Aiello, is indicated only if there is a significant disease risk, and the veterinary staff deemed the Washington, D.

In light of the recent death of a colobus monkey from leptospirosis NZP, Press Room, , as well as the ongoing issue with rodent control at the National Zoo, this is an example of a component of the preventive medicine program that warrants reevaluation. The veterinary services program should have clear authority and responsibility for animal health care decisions at the National Zoo.

Based on the committee's review, materials examined, and input received, the decision-making process has not been clearly articulated and has likely obscured the authoritative role the veterinary staff should take in making these decisions.

Staff participating in the care of the animals at the National Zoo, including keepers, curators, and nutrition staff, should have an opportunity to provide input on health care issues. However, the veterinarian attending to a case should have, and should accept, final authority for health care decisions.

Although the preventive medicine program at the National Zoo is generally comprehensive and in accordance with published guidelines AZA, c; AAZV, , there has been a failure to successfully implement, adhere to, and continually review and improve the preventive medicine program.

Finding 1: The current preventive medicine program at the National Zoo is not being fully implemented, and since , veterinary staff members have not been adhering to this program in terms of providing annual exams, vaccinations, and infectious-disease testing. Although efforts have been made in the past year to improve implementation, there is still a backlog of animals that have not received examinations, vaccinations, or tests as prescribed by the preventive medicine program.

Immediate Needs: The Department of Animal Health should promptly eliminate the backlog of animals that should receive preventive care and document its current and future plan for preventive medicine activities. The National Zoo administration should take responsibility for ensuring that the Department of Animal Health has the resources and oversight necessary to adhere to the program.

A report on general and specific zoo animal nutrition

Feeding rates intake of both dry matter and fresh matter by 79 species of mammals, 95 species of birds and 55 species of reptiles were estimated from doubly labeled water-based measurements of field metabolic rate on each species Table 1. Allometric scaling regression analyses of logtransformed feeding rates vs. The ability to predict feeding rates of terrestrial vertebrates should be useful to zoo keepers, animal nutritionists, veterinarians, pet hobbyists, wildlife zoologists, game managers, range biologists, preserve directors and planners, conservationists, paleontologists and ecosystem modelers. These equations should underestimate somewhat the feeding rates of free-living animals that are growing, reproducing or storing up fat. The equations probably overestimate the feeding rates of captive wild animals e. Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Previous research into public perceptions of live prey feeding has been focused on terrestrial animals. The reasons for this likely relate to the difficulty humans have in being compassionate to animals who are phylogenetically distantly related. Likert based surveys were used to obtain data face to face and via online social media. Demographics in previous research identified a lower acceptance of live prey feeding by females, however in aquatic animals this was not reflected. Instead, separations in perception were seen to exist between participants dependent on whether they had just visited a zoo or aquarium, or worked with animals.

NCBI Bookshelf. These departments are generally responsible for the exhibition, day-to-day care, and health of the animal collection NZP, Best Practices, The Animal Programs Department is generally responsible for the exhibition of the animals, day-to-day care of the animals, and development of the animal collection NZP, Department of Animal Programs — Best Practices, The Department of Animal Health consists of the veterinary staff at the animal hospital, as well as the nutrition and commissary staff. This department is responsible for the health of the animal collection: proper nutrition, preventive medicine, and health care NZP, Department of Animal Health — Best Practices, The Department of Pathology provides clinical laboratory and postmortem diagnosis and research to identify diseases that are occurring at the National Zoo and determine how they can be controlled or prevented NZP, Department of Pathology — Best Practices,


Many contacts have been made to improve zoo animal nutrition in the future. By the diversity of groups this issue can be downloaded as a PDF file from www.​dantealighieriofpueblo.org energy for ruminants in feed composition tables may give a reasonable meeting the energy requirements, and at stimulating natural activity levels.


A report on general and specific zoo animal nutrition

Jump to navigation. Humans have shared a fascination with wild animals since time immemorial. While the modern American lifestyle has placed a barrier between most humans and wild animals, many still strive to see and interact with animals in a controlled environment.

A report on general and specific zoo animal nutrition

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