water pollution laws and regulations in ghana pdf

Water Pollution Laws And Regulations In Ghana Pdf

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Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources.

Journal of Health and Pollution 1 March ; 8 17 : 43— Mining has played an important role in the development of Ghana.

Material adapted from: Hudson, T. L, Fox, F. Metal Mining and the Environment, p.

What are environmental regulations on mining activities?

ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - Ghana covers common issues in mining laws and regulations — including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights — in 15 jurisdictions.

They express the basic position that minerals in their natural state are owned by the State. They also outline the licensing scheme for mineral operations, the incidence of the various mineral rights and the powers of the principal regulatory institutions. The following pieces of subordinate legislation add detail in specific areas to the regime set out in the principal legislation: a Minerals and Mining General Regulations, L.

The sector Minister, currently the Minister for Lands and Natural Resources, and the Minerals Commission are the Government bodies with primary responsibility for administering the mining industry.

Environmental legislation, including that relating to forest protection, water bodies and water use, tax legislation, customary law relating to land tenure, the law of corporations, contract law and administrative law principles concerning the exercise of governmental power, are all relevant to the mining industry.

The Minerals and Mining Amendment Act, Act introduced amendments to the Minerals and Mining Act, Act , including that which seeks to prevent foreigners from providing mining support services to small-scale miners and imposes stiff punishment for the sale or purchase of minerals without a licence and for the facilitation of small-scale mining by foreigners.

We understand further amendments are proposed to Act which would reduce the duration of a development agreement with the Government from 15 to 5 years, introduce gender considerations into employment in the mining sector, and provide stiffer punishment for aiding foreigners to evade the restrictions on their involvement in small-scale mining. No bill has yet been published in respect of these proposals and until that is done, the legislative process, which includes the gazetting of such bill and its laying before Parliament to undergo consideration and three readings, would not have commenced.

The Chamber of Mines proposes to assist mineral refineries in the country to receive international accreditation so as to help market their products. The object is to reduce the reliance of mining companies in Ghana on foreign refineries and thereby save the country the costs of foreign exchange.

The rights required are: a a prospecting licence; and b a restricted prospecting licence to engage in prospecting for industrial minerals. The rights required to conduct mining are: a a mining lease; b a restricted mining lease to engage in mining for an industrial mineral; and c a small-scale mining licence for the conduct of small-scale mining.

The mining lease permits its holder to engage in reconnaissance and prospecting. No, although there are different eligibility criteria for different rights. In particular, non-Ghanaians are prohibited from engaging in small-scale mining. The threshold for engaging in industrial mineral operations is higher for non-Ghanaians than for Ghanaians. Save for small-scale mining rights which can be granted to individual Ghanaians, only corporate bodies incorporated in Ghana under Ghanaian law can hold mineral rights.

Foreign entities cannot directly hold mineral rights, though entities they incorporate in Ghana can hold mineral rights. The minimum capital requirement may be met in cash or capital goods relevant to the investment. The entity and the exiting shareholder are also required to notify the Minister, respectively, of the change in control of the company or of ceasing to be controller.

A small-scale mining licence may only be granted to a citizen of Ghana who is at least 18 years old, and is registered by the office of the Minerals Commission in an area designated as a small-scale mining area. This does not preclude the Government from any other or further participation in mineral operations that may be agreed with the holder of the mineral. The special share is meant to give the Government, inter alia , the power to veto decisions relating to the liquidation of the company or disposal of the whole or a material part of its assets.

To the best of our knowledge, since this provision was first introduced, the special share has only been taken on one occasion in the context of the State reducing its interest in a company in which it previously held majority shares. The Minerals and Mining Act requires a licence from the Minister for the sale, export or other disposal of a mineral. An application by a person other than a holder of a mining lease, to purchase and export, sell or dispose of gold or other precious minerals, requires the applicant to satisfy the Minister that the minerals will be refined or polished in Ghana or that only refined or polished minerals will be purchased for export, or that a percentage of the minerals will be supplied to local users.

In practice, as there is very little refinery capacity in Ghana, this requirement is hardly enforced. The shipment of diamonds is subject to certification under the Kimberley Process Certificate Act, Act A transfer, assignment, mortgage, or encumbrance of a mineral right or any dealing in relation to a mineral right requires the prior written approval of the Minister. The approval should not be unreasonably withheld or given subject to unreasonable conditions.

Further, the Minister is required to communicate a decision on the application within 30 days of receipt of the application; otherwise, the Minister, upon request from the applicant, must give reasons for failing to do so. A reconnaissance, prospecting or mining right may be mortgaged or secured, subject to the approval of the Minister.

If the mortgagor defaults and the mortgagee forecloses, the mortgagee acquires the mineral rights subject to the approval of the Minister. Reconnaissance, prospecting and mining rights may be subdivided with the approval of the Minister. Mineral rights may be held in undivided shares. However, given the requirement of local incorporation referred to in response to question 3.

A holder of a mineral right cannot explore for or mine a mineral that is not the subject of the mineral right. If the holder desires to explore for or mine any other mineral, the person must apply to the Minister to amend the right to include such other mineral.

A mineral right holder is only entitled to exercise rights in respect of the minerals to which its licence relates. To exercise rights over residue deposits tailings , additional rights are required. The holder of a mineral right is entitled to enter onto the land for the conduct of the mineral operations. However, it is required to exercise its rights subject to the surface rights of the owner or occupier of the land.

The holder of a mineral right is required to exercise the rights granted subject to the surface rights of the owner or occupier of the land. The owner or lawful occupier of land retains the right to graze livestock upon or to cultivate the surface of the land if the grazing or cultivation does not interfere with the mineral operations in the area.

The holder of a mineral right is also required to compensate the owner or lawful occupier for the disturbance of the surface rights of the owner or lawful occupier. The compensation may be monetary or by way of resettlement, the cost of which shall be borne by the mineral right holder. Where people have to be displaced, there is a constitutional obligation to resettle them. Where land is required to secure the development or utilisation of a mineral resource, the President may acquire the land or authorise its occupation and use subject to the prompt payment of fair and adequate compensation.

Act also gives the Minister the power of pre-emption in respect of all minerals raised, won or obtained in Ghana. The exercise of this power is subject to the constitutional provisions regulating expropriation and to the terms of agreements entered into with mineral rights holders. In any case, that power has not, to the best of our knowledge, been exercised in more than 30 years.

An environmental permit is required in order to undertake reconnaissance, exploration and mineral operations. The manager of a mine is required to comply with the provisions of L. These contain obligations relating to the construction and location of tailings and waste product storage facilities.

These include obligations to ensure that tailings storage facilities are stabilised in the long term. The Environmental Assessment Regulations, L. A reconnaissance or prospecting licence requires the holder to comply with terms which typically include an obligation to rehabilitate the land.

In respect of a mining lease, the holder is required, before closing a mine site, to satisfy the Chief Inspector of Mines that each source of potential pollution and component of the mining operation that is to be closed is designed to be stable in the long term.

In respect of mining, the Local Governance Act, Act prohibits the carrying out of any physical development without a permit granted by the District Planning Authority. In the standard mineral right agreement, the holder is prohibited from conducting any operations in a sacred area.

It further requires the written consent of the Minister to conduct its operations: a within metres of any forest reserve, river, stream, building, installation, reservoir or dam, public road, railway or area appropriated for a railway; b within 30 metres of a pylon; and c in an area occupied by a market, burial ground, cemetery or Government office, or situated within a town or village or set apart for, used, appropriated or dedicated to a public purpose.

In Ghana, land is mostly owned by individuals, extended families and communities presided over by chiefs who hold the land in trust for their members. These members are entitled to exercise surface rights over and appropriate portions of these lands in accordance with customary law. They must be compensated by the mineral rights holder for interference with their rights.

The right to compensation includes compensation for: a deprivation of the use or particular use of the natural surface of the land or part of the land; b loss of or damage to property; c loss of earnings or sustenance suffered by the owner or lawful occupier of land under cultivation having due regard to the nature of their interest in the land; and d loss of expected income, depending on the nature of crops on the land and their life expectancy.

No claim for compensation lies in respect of the value of a mineral. Given the importance of the mining sector to the Ghanaian economy, mining was listed as an essential service and therefore exempted from the lockdown imposed by the Government of Ghana in the months of March and April Mining companies have therefore been able to operate during the lockdown, though they have had to implement additional health and safety controls.

The Minerals Commission is required to and does maintain a register of mineral rights in which it records applications, grants, variations and dealings in assignments, transfers, suspensions and cancellations of mineral rights. The register is open to public inspection on payment of a prescribed fee and members of the public may, upon request to the Commission and on payment of the prescribed fee, be provided a copy of the records.

Further, the interest in minerals conveyed by a grant is required to be stamped and registered within 21 days of being granted with either the Land Registry or the Land Title Registry depending on the area in which the mineral right is located. Copies of the stamped and registered documents are required to be provided to the Minerals Commission. The prerogative remedies known to the administrative law of common law jurisdictions are available under Ghanaian law.

These are available to enforce constitutional duties of candour and fairness imposed on public officers. Grants of rights to exploit minerals are subject to ratification by Parliament and have been held by the Supreme Court in the recent unreported case of The Republic v.

Generally, these provide protection to the investments of persons from the contracting parties. Yes, these rules are provided under sections 77 to 86 of the Income Tax Act, Act In ascertaining the assessable income of a person from mineral operations, a each separate mineral operation is treated as an independent business, and b the tax liability for the business is required to be calculated independently for each year of assessment.

For income tax purposes, a mineral operation pertaining to each mine and a mineral operation with a shared processing facility constitute separate mineral operations which are required to be taxed separately.

Property rates are chargeable by local government bodies under the Local Governance Act, Act There is provision for the surrender abandonment of a mineral right whether in whole or in part. A holder of a mineral right who wishes to surrender the land subject to the mineral right is required to apply to the Minister for a certificate of surrender no later than two months before the date on which the holder wishes the surrender to take effect.

In respect of an exploration or prospecting licence, the holder is required, prior to or at the expiration of the initial term, to surrender no less than half the number of blocks of the prospecting area, so long as a minimum of blocks remain subject to the licence and the blocks form not more than three discrete areas, each consisting of a a single block, or b a number of blocks each having a side in common with at least one other block in that area.

Relief may be granted either in whole or in part against this requirement if the holder of the prospecting licence satisfies the Minister that delay by a Government institution or agency in the issuance of permits or in carrying out a lawful activity resulted in delay by the holder in the discharge of an obligation under the prospecting licence.

The period of the relief shall not exceed 12 months and shall be subject to such other conditions that the Minister thinks fit. Prior to exercising a right to suspend or cancel a mineral right, the Minister is required to give notice to the holder requiring the holder to remedy the breach complained of within a reasonable period, not being less than days in the case of a mining lease or restricted mining lease, or 60 days in the case of another mineral right.

Where the breach cannot be remedied, the holder is required to show cause to the reasonable satisfaction of the Minister as to why the mineral right should not be suspended or cancelled. Fui Tsikata Reindorf Chambers. Dominic Dziewornu Quashigah Reindorf Chambers. Reindorf Chambers. Chapter Content Free Access 1. Relevant Authorities and Legislation 2. Recent Political Developments 3. Mechanics of Acquisition of Rights 4. Processing, Refining, Beneficiation and Export 6. Transfer and Encumbrance 7.

Rights to Use Surface of Land 9. Environmental

Bangladesh — one of the most densely populated countries of the world— has plentiful water sources, but these sources are being polluted continuously. Both surface water and groundwater sources are contaminated with different contaminants like toxic trace metals, coliforms as well as other organic and inorganic pollutants. As most of the population uses these water sources, especially groundwater sources which contain an elevated amount of arsenic throughout the country; health risk regarding consuming water is very high. Death due to water-borne diseases is widespread in Bangladesh, particularly among children. Anthropogenic sources such as untreated industrial effluents, improper disposal of domestic waste, agricultural runoffs are the main contributors regarding water pollution.

ICLG - Mining Laws and Regulations - Ghana covers common issues in mining laws and regulations — including the acquisition of rights, ownership requirements and restrictions, processing, transfer and encumbrance, environmental aspects, native title and land rights — in 15 jurisdictions. They express the basic position that minerals in their natural state are owned by the State. They also outline the licensing scheme for mineral operations, the incidence of the various mineral rights and the powers of the principal regulatory institutions. The following pieces of subordinate legislation add detail in specific areas to the regime set out in the principal legislation: a Minerals and Mining General Regulations, L. The sector Minister, currently the Minister for Lands and Natural Resources, and the Minerals Commission are the Government bodies with primary responsibility for administering the mining industry.

Environmental law describes a network of regulations and customary laws that address the effects of human activity on the natural environment. These laws are also referred to as environmental and natural resource law and center on the idea of environmental pollution. In addition to this issue, environmental law works to manage specific natural resources and environmental impact assessment. There are a few key areas that environmental law works to regulate in order to lessen the impact on the environment. Some of these areas include:.

The drinking water supply and sanitation sector in Ghana faces a number of challenges, including very limited access to sanitation , intermittent supply , high water losses and low water pressure. Since , the sector has been gradually reformed through the creation of an autonomous regulatory agency , introduction of private sector participation , decentralization of the rural supply to districts and increased community participation in the management of rural water systems. An international company has managed all urban water systems since under a 5-year management contract which expired after achieving only some of its objectives.

In , The Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition was issued and retained all of the guidance in the handbook unless such guidance was specifically revised in subsequent years. The handbook also contained new EPA guidance that was developed between and EPA did not revise the text of the chapters in either or EPA also streamlined the text of these chapters to make the document more user friendly.

Хейл наклонил голову набок, явно заинтригованный такой скрытностью. И, как бы желая обратить все в игру, сделал еще один шаг. Но он не был готов к тому, что произошло в следующее мгновение. Сохраняя ледяное спокойствие, Сьюзан ткнула указательным пальцем в твердокаменную грудь Хейла и заставила его остановиться. Хейл в шоке отпрянул, поняв, что она не шутит: Сьюзан Флетчер никогда еще до него не дотрагивалась, даже руки не коснулась. Правда, это было не то прикосновение, какое он рисовал в воображении, представляя себе их первый физический контакт, но все же… Хейл долго с изумлением смотрел на нее, затем медленно повернулся и направился к своему терминалу.

Каждый шаг Стратмора был рассчитан самым тщательным образом. Строя свои планы, Стратмор целиком полагался на собственный компьютер. Как и многие другие сотрудники АНБ, он использовал разработанную агентством программу Мозговой штурм - безопасный способ разыгрывать сценарий типа Что, если?. на защищенном от проникновения компьютере. Мозговой штурм был своего рода разведывательным экспериментом, который его создатели называли Симулятором причин и следствий.


ГЛАВА 57 В туалетных комнатах шифровалки не было окон, и Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась в полной темноте. Она замерла, стараясь успокоиться и чувствуя, как растущая паника сковывает ее тело. Душераздирающий крик, раздавшийся из вентиляционной шахты, все еще звучал в ее ушах. Вопреки отчаянным попыткам подавить охвативший ее страх Сьюзан явственно ощущала, что это чувство завладевает ею безраздельно. Она металась между дверцами кабинок и рукомойниками. Потеряв ориентацию, двигалась, вытянув перед собой руки и пытаясь восстановить в памяти очертания комнаты.

Он так или иначе собирался вернуть деньги. Он поехал в Испанию не ради денег. Он сделал это из-за Сьюзан. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор - ее наставник и покровитель. Сьюзан многим ему обязана; потратить день на то, чтобы исполнить его поручение, - это самое меньшее, что он мог для нее сделать.

Обычно лучистые и ясные, сейчас его глаза казались усталыми, тусклыми. Сколько я уже тут кручусь. Однако считать ему не хотелось. По профессиональной привычке поправив съехавший набок узел галстука, он повернулся к писсуару. Он подумал, дома ли Сьюзан.

Сегодня как раз такой день.  - В глазах его читалась печаль.  - То, что сейчас скажу, я не собирался говорить никому.

Бринкерхофф застонал, сожалея, что попросил ее проверить отчет шифровалки. Он опустил глаза и посмотрел на ее протянутую руку. - Речь идет о засекреченной информации, хранящейся в личном помещении директора. Ты только представь себе, что будет, если об этом станет известно.

 В общем-то .

 - Но тут… тут слишком. Мне нужны только деньги на такси.  - Он прикинул в уме, сколько в этой пачке в пересчете на доллары.  - Да тут несколько тысяч долларов. - Я действую по инструкции, сэр.

 - Мидж посмотрела в монитор и постучала костяшками пальцев по столу.  - Он здесь, - сказала она как о чем-то само собой разумеющемся.  - Сейчас находится в шифровалке.

 - У Танкадо сказано: главная разница между элементами.


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