Types Of Chemical Erosion And Rocks Formed Pdf
File Name: types of chemical erosion and rocks formed .zip
Weathering is happening all around the world, all the time. To find out how it happens and learn more fun chemical weathering facts, explore some famous examples of the phenomenon.
- Chemical Weathering
- The Rock Cycle
- Weathering and soil formation
- 5 Chemical Weathering Examples and How They Occur
Extrusive, or volcanic, igneous rocks are formed when molten hot material cools and solidifies. There are three main types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Each of these rocks are formed by physical changes—such as melting , cooling , eroding, compacting, or deforming—that are part of the rock cycle.
Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are formed from pieces of other existing rock or organic material. There are three different types of sedimentary rocks: clastic, organic biological , and chemical. Clastic sedimentary rocks, like sandstone, form from clasts, or pieces of other rock.
Organic sedimentary rocks, like coal, form from hard, biological materials like plants, shells, and bones that are compressed into rock. The formation of clastic and organic rocks begins with the weathering , or breaking down, of the exposed rock into small fragments.
Through the process of erosion , these fragments are removed from their source and transported by wind, water, ice, or biological activity to a new location. Once the sediment settles somewhere, and enough of it collects, the lowest layers become compacted so tightly that they form solid rock.
Chemical sedimentary rocks, like limestone, halite, and flint, form from chemical precipitation. A chemical precipitate is a chemical compound—for instance, calcium carbonate, salt, and silica—that forms when the solution it is dissolved in, usually water, evaporates and leaves the compound behind. These dissolved minerals are precipitated when the water evaporates. Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed from their original form by immense heat or pressure.
Metamorphic rocks have two classes: foliated and nonfoliated. When a rock with flat or elongated minerals is put under immense pressure, the minerals line up in layers, creating foliation. Foliation is the aligning of elongated or platy minerals, like hornblende or mica, perpendicular to the direction of pressure that is applied. An example of this transformation can be seen with granite, an igneous rock. Granite contains long and platy minerals that are not initially aligned, but when enough pressure is added, those minerals shift to all point in the same direction while getting squeezed into flat sheets.
Nonfoliated rocks are formed the same way, but they do not contain the minerals that tend to line up under pressure and thus do not have the layered appearance of foliated rocks.
Sedimentary rocks like bituminous coal, limestone, and sandstone, given enough heat and pressure, can turn into nonfoliated metamorphic rocks like anthracite coal, marble, and quartzite. Nonfoliated rocks can also form by metamorphism, which happens when magma comes in contact with the surrounding rock. Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks derived from the Latin word for fire are formed when molten hot material cools and solidifies.
Igneous rocks can also be made a couple of different ways. When they are formed inside of the earth, they are called intrusive, or plutonic, igneous rocks.
Granite and diorite are examples of common intrusive rocks. They have a coarse texture with large mineral grains, indicating that they spent thousands or millions of years cooling down inside the earth, a time course that allowed large mineral crystals to grow. Alternatively, rocks like basalt and obsidian have very small grains and a relatively fine texture. This happens because when magma erupts into lava, it cools more quickly than it would if it stayed inside the earth, giving crystals less time to form.
Obsidian cools into volcanic glass so quickly when ejected that the grains are impossible to see with the naked eye. This happens when the ejected magma still has gases inside of it so when it cools, the gas bubbles are trapped and end up giving the rock a bubbly texture.
An example of this would be pumice. Any rock type can become any other. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.
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Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives. Metamorphic rocks start as one type of rock and—with pressure, heat, and time—gradually change into a new type of rock. Sedimentary rocks are one of three main types of rocks, along with igneous and metamorphic.
Igneous rocks are one of three main types of rocks along with sedimentary and metamorphic , and they include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students.
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The Rock Cycle
Rock , in geology , naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is composed and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are 1 igneous rocks, which have solidified from molten material called magma; 2 sedimentary rocks, those consisting of fragments derived from preexisting rocks or of materials precipitated from solutions; and 3 metamorphic rocks, which have been derived from either igneous or sedimentary rocks under conditions that caused changes in mineralogical composition , texture, and internal structure. These three classes, in turn, are subdivided into numerous groups and types on the basis of various factors, the most important of which are chemical, mineralogical, and textural attributes.
The two main types of weathering are physical and chemical weathering. This page describes mechanical physical weathering and more. Rocks are naturally fractured at several levels. Mineral grains have boundaries, which can be areas of weakness in the rock. Sedimentary rocks next time often are layered and the layers sometimes are not bound together well. More massive rocks can have joints cracks which have no relative motion across them, only spreading which will open as the rocks are exposed due to erosion.
Weathering and soil formation
Themes: What is weathering Physical weathering Chemical and biological weathering Quiz. Weathering is the name given to the process by which rocks are broken down to form soils. Rocks and geological sediments are the main parent materials of soils the materials from which soils have formed. There is a very wide variety of rocks in the world, some acidic, some alkaline, some coarse-textured like sands, and some fine-textured and clayey.
Geomorphology of Desert Environments pp Cite as. Recent studies of weathering in deserts e. Goudie , Cooke et al.
5 Chemical Weathering Examples and How They Occur
The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary , metamorphic , and igneous. Each rock type is altered when it is forced out of its equilibrium conditions. For example, an igneous rock such as basalt may break down and dissolve when exposed to the atmosphere , or melt as it is subducted under a continent. Due to the driving forces of the rock cycle, plate tectonics and the water cycle , rocks do not remain in equilibrium and change as they encounter new environments. The rock cycle explains how the three rock types are related to each other, and how processes change from one type to another over time. This cyclical aspect makes rock change a geologic cycle and, on planets containing life , a biogeochemical cycle.
The footprints that astronauts left on the Moon will be there forever. This is because the Moon has no atmosphere and, as a result, has no weathering. Weathering is one of the forces on Earth that destroy rocks and landforms. Without weathering, geologic features would build up but would be less likely to break down. Weathering is the process that changes solid rock into sediments. Sediments were described in the Rocks chapter. With weathering, rock is disintegrated.
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