essay on climate change and global warming pdf

Essay On Climate Change And Global Warming Pdf

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How Does Climate Change Affect Global Economy?

Global Warming - Impacts and Future Perspective. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities are believed to be main contributors to such increases in average global temperatures. The climate change, caused by rising emissions of carbon dioxide from vehicles, factories and power stations, will not only effects the atmosphere and the sea but also will alter the geology of the Earth.

Emissions of carbon dioxide due to our use of fossil energy will change the climate and the temperature is estimated to increase by 2 to 6 o Celsius within year , which is a tremendous increase from our current average temperature of 1.

This may cause huge changes to our civilization, both positive and negative, but the total impact on our society is currently very uncertain. Forecasts indicate that major storms could devastate New York City in next decade whereas Gulf countries will get affected badly well before. A warming planet thus leads to climate changes which can adversely affect weather in different ways.

Some of the prominent indicators for a global warming are detailed below:. In , an US based Chief consultant and oil geologist Marion King Hubert, predicted that if oil is consumed with high rate, US oil production may peak in and thereafter it will decline.

He also described that other countries may attain peak oil day within years and many more may suffer with oil crises within 40 years, when oil wells are going to dry. He illustrated the projection with a bell shaped Hubert Curve based on the availability and its consumptions of the fossil fuel.

Large fields are discovered first, small ones later. After exploration and initial growth in output, production plateaus and eventually declines to zero.

Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that when non-renewable energy will be diminished, is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered.

A new formula for calculating, when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted, is presented along with an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables Shahriar Shafiee et. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, and 37 years, respectively.

This means that coal reserves are available up to , and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after In India, vehicular pollution is estimated to have increased eight times over the last two decades. This source alone is estimated to contribute about 70 per cent to the total air pollution. With India's contribution to world carbon emissions is expected to increase in the coming years due to the rapid pace of urbanization, shift from non-commercial to commercial fuels, increased vehicular usage and continued use of older and more inefficient coal-fired and fuel power-plants Singh, BR, et al.

Thus, peak oil year may be the turning point for mankind which may lead to the end of year of easy growth, if self-sufficiently and sustainability of energy is not maintained on priority. This chapter describes the efforts being made to explore non-conventional energy resources such as: solar energy, wind energy, bio-mass and bio-gas, hydrogen, bio-diesel which may help for the sustainable fossil fuel reserves and reduce the tail pipe emission and other pollutants like: CO 2, NO X etc..

The special emphasis is also given for the storage of energy such as compressed air stored from solar, wind and or other resources like: climatic energy to maintain energy sustainability of 21 st century. This may also leads to environmentally and ecologically better future. In September , Lord Byron set off from Geneva with his friend Hob house, and kept a journal for his half-sister Augusta.

Lodged at the Curate's, set out to see the Valley; heard an Avalanche fall, like thunder; saw Glacier — enormous. Storm came on, thunder, lightning, hail; all in perfection, and beautiful Fig 1.

Byron described glaciers in Geneva as "neither mist nor water" in September Got in, not very wet; the cloak being staunch, H wet though. H took refuge in a cottage; sent man, umbrella and cloak from the Curate's when he arrived after him. He sees a torrent like the tail of a white horse streaming in the wind, such as it might be conceived would be that of the ' pale horse' on which Death is mounted in the Apocalypse. It is neither mist nor water, but something between both; its immense height nine hundred feet gives it a wave, a curve, a spreading here, a condensation there, wonderful and indescribable.

He looks again the next day: the Sun upon it forming a rainbow of the lower part of all colours, but principally purple and gold; the bow moving as you move; he never saw anything like this. With increases in the Earth's global mean temperature i. The IPCC d and d has organized many of these risks into five "reasons for concern:. The poor within countries, global aggregate impacts i. The effects, or impacts, of climate change may be physical, ecological, social or economic.

Evidence of observed climate change includes the instrumental temperature record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC, a , "[most] of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the midth century is very likely due to the observed increase in [human greenhouse gas] concentrations".

It is predicted that future climate changes will include further global warming i. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has agreed to implement policies designed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. The phrase climate change is used to describe a change in the climate, measured in terms of its statistical properties, e.

In this context, climate is taken to mean the average weather. Climate can change over period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical time period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. The climate change referred to may be due to natural causes, e. Any human-induced changes in climate will occur against the background of natural climatic variations. Climate change reflects a change in the energy balance of the climate system, i.

When this balance changes it is called "radiative forcing", and the calculation and measurement of radiative forcing is one aspect of the science of climatology. The processes that cause such changes are called "forcing mechanisms". Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external".

Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself, e. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural e. Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast e. Therefore, the climate system can respond abruptly, but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be fully developed for centuries or even longer.

Measurements show a global temperature increase of 1. Global warming is closely associated with a broad spectrum of other climate changes, such as:. There are two studied made here to elaborate the risk of intense rain fall one by United States and other one by United Kingdom. They have warned that these risks are due to extreme climate change, thus we have to curb the global warming issues in phases.

The summaries of study are given below:. A mere 15 years later, history is repeating itself in the Midwest as the rainswollen Cedar, Illinois, Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and their tributaries top their banks and levees, leaving hundreds of thousands of people displaced. With rainfall in May-June about two to three times greater than the long-term average, soybean planting is behind schedule and some crops may have to be replanted.

This remarkably quick return of such severe flooding is not anticipated by currently used out-of-date methodologies, but is what we should expect as global warming leads to more frequent and intense severe storms.

Inadequate floodplain management is also responsible for the extent of damages from both floods, especially over-reliance on levees and the false sense of security they provide to those who live behind them.

About 28 percent of the total new development in the seven states over the past 15 years has been in areas within the flood events. The National Wildlife Federation says that to limit the magnitude of changes to the climate and the impacts on communities and wildlife, we must curb global warming pollution.

This target is achievable with technologies either available or under development, but we need to start taking action now to avoid the worst impacts See: www. Extreme rainfall and flood risk in the UK: Multi-day rainfall events are an important cause of recent severe flooding in the UK and any change in the magnitude of such events may have severe impacts upon urban structures such as dams, urban drainage systems and flood defences and cause failures to occur.

Regional pooling of 1-, 2-, 5- and day annual maxima for to from sites across the UK is used in a standard regional frequency analysis to produce GEV growth curves for long return-period rainfall events for each of nine defined climatological regions.

Temporal changes in 1-, 2-, 5- and day annual maxima are examined with L-moments using both a year moving window and fixed decades from , , and A bootstrap technique is then used to assess uncertainty in the fitted decadal growth curves and to identify significant trends in both distribution parameters and quantile estimates.

There has been a two-part change in extreme rainfall event occurrence across the UK from Little change is observed at 1- and 2-day duration, but significant decadal level changes are seen in 5- and day events in many regions.

In the south of the UK, growth curves have flattened and 5- and day annual maxima have decreased during the s. However, in the north, the day growth curve has steepened and annual maxima have risen during the s. This is particularly evident in Scotland. The year event in Scotland during has become an 8-, and year event in the Eastern, Southern and Northern Scotland pooling regions respectively during the s.

In northern England the average recurrence interval has also halved. This may have severe implications for design and planning practices in flood control. Increasing flood risk is now recognised as the most important sectoral threat from climate change in most parts of the world, with recent repeated severe flooding in the UK and Europe causing major loss of property and life, and causing the insurance industry to threaten the withdrawal of flood insurance cover from millions of UK households.

This has prompted public debate on the apparent increased frequency of extremes and focussed attention in particular on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Climate model integrations predict increases in both the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall in the high latitudes under enhanced greenhouse conditions.

These projections are consistent with recent increases in rainfall intensity seen in the UK and worldwide. There is a highly significant correlation between increases in Northern Hemisphere land temperatures and the decreases. There is now ample evidence to support a major retreat of alpine and continental glaciers in response to 20th century warming.

In a few maritime regions, increases in precipitation due to regional atmospheric circulation changes have overshadowed increases in temperature in the past two decades, and glaciers have re-advanced.

Over the past to years, ground-based observations show that there is possibility of a reduction of about two weeks in the annual duration of lake and river ice in the mid- to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere Fig.

Time-series of relative sea level for the past years from Northern Europe: Amsterdam, Netherlands; Brest, France; Sheerness, UK; Stockholm, Sweden detrended over the period to to remove to first order the contribution of post-glacial rebound ; Swinoujscie, Poland formerly Swinemunde, Germany ; and Liverpool, UK. There is little indication of reduced Arctic sea-ice extent during winter when temperatures have increased in the surrounding region.

By contrast, there is no readily apparent relationship between decadal changes of Antarctic temperatures and sea-ice extent since After an initial decrease in the mids, Antarctic sea-ice extent has remained stable, or even slightly increased. Interannual variability and inter-decadal variability could be influencing these changes.

A recent study shows that an increase in heat-absorbing greenhouse gases intensifies an unusual atmospheric circulation pattern already observed during heat waves in Europe and North America. As the pattern becomes more pronounced, severe heat waves occur in the Mediterranean region and the southern and western United States. Other parts of France, Germany and the Balkans also become more susceptible to severe heat waves.

Heat waves can kill more people in a shorter time than almost any other climate event.

Global warming

Global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Increases in greenhouse gases —i. Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure.

Causes of climate chanGe 1. Natural Reasons 1 Melting of the Ice. Effects of climate change On Global Economy 1. These two quotes from very famous politicians show that climate change is not only a topic for science fiction movies or Greenpeace any more, but has reached a relevance for even economy and politics. As the melting of the ice or a slightly rising sea level does not have huge economical impacts yet, there are already some natural catastrophes like the hurricanes Katrina or Sandy and storm floods in Japan after the earthquake in that influence global economy yet, we still do not think of them as early impacts of global warming but as unfortunate coincidences. Due to climate change as a huge — and widely discussed phenomenon nowadays, there are many different theories why there is a global warming.

Open access to this Essay is brought to you by Parkland College's Fahrenheit during the 20th century (Global Climate Change: Effects). According to Holli Riebeek, the author of “Global Warming,” nature also contribute to.

What is the difference between global warming and climate change?

Science Explorer. Multimedia Gallery. Park Passes. Technical Announcements.

The effects of climate change span the physical environment , ecosystems and human societies. It also includes the economic and social changes which stem from living in a warmer world. Human-caused climate change is one of the threats to sustainability. Many physical impacts of climate change are already visible, including extreme weather events, glacier retreat , [7] changes in the timing of seasonal events e.

Effects of climate change

Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth.

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Global Warming - Impacts and Future Perspective. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities are believed to be main contributors to such increases in average global temperatures. The climate change, caused by rising emissions of carbon dioxide from vehicles, factories and power stations, will not only effects the atmosphere and the sea but also will alter the geology of the Earth. Emissions of carbon dioxide due to our use of fossil energy will change the climate and the temperature is estimated to increase by 2 to 6 o Celsius within year , which is a tremendous increase from our current average temperature of 1. This may cause huge changes to our civilization, both positive and negative, but the total impact on our society is currently very uncertain.

To understand what this means for humanity, it is necessary to understand what global warming is, how scientists know it's happening, and how they predict future climate of global warming. Part of writing out scientific essay on global warming is to be concise and to have your arguments structured, formulated and to the point. Against this backdrop, we explore how global warming is likely to impact global activity and discuss the need for a collective policy response. Melissa Phillips. Energy Saving.

 Возвращайся домой. Прямо. - Встретимся в Стоун-Мэнор. Она кивнула, и из ее глаз потекли слезы.

Ты в опасности. Казалось, она его не слышала. Хейл понимал, что говорит полную ерунду, потому что Стратмор никогда не причинит ей вреда, и она это отлично знает. Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор. Шеф внезапно замолчал и растворился во тьме.

Когда запыхавшийся сотрудник лаборатории безопасности завопил о вирусе, Стратмор, столкнувшийся с ним на лестнице служебного помещения, попытался наставить его на путь истинный. Но Чатрукьян отказывался прислушаться к голосу разума. У нас вирус. Я звоню Джаббе.

Он присел на корточки и в десяти метрах от себя увидел чей-то силуэт. - Мистер. Беккер узнал голос.

 Adonde fue? - снова прозвучал вопрос.  - Американец. - В… аэропорт. Aeropuerto, - заикаясь сказал Двухцветный.

 Я готов рискнуть. - Чепуха.

Беккер поспешил переменить тему: - У вас на голове огромная шишка. Больно. - Да нет вообще-то. Я грохнулся на землю - такова цена, которую приходится платить добрым самаритянам.

 Я рада, что поймала тебя, - продолжала.  - Мне нужен совет. Джабба встряхнул бутылочку с острой приправой Доктор Пеппер. - Выкладывай. - Может быть, все это чепуха, - сказала Мидж, - но в статистических данных по шифровалке вдруг вылезло что-то несуразное.

Больше ждать он не мог: глаза горели огнем, нужно было промыть их водой. Стратмор подождет минуту-другую. Полуслепой, он направился в туалетную комнату. Смутные очертания тележки все еще виднелись у двери в мужской туалет, поэтому Беккер снова подошел к дамской комнате. Ему показалось, что внутри звучали какие-то голоса.

 - Это прозвучало как сигнал к окончанию разговора. Он отпил глоток кофе.


Timothy G.

The purpose of this essay is to assess the implications of climate change for the welfare of human society and our environment. I will first discuss the science.


Ancelina G.

Some scientists predict that we only have 8 months to act or it will be too late.


Nicasio A.

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