Principles And Practices Of Management Pdf
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- Principles and Practice of Management, 1/e
- Principles of Practice Management
- Principles of Practice Management
Save extra with 2 Offers. Highlighting the management practices of successful Indian and foreign companies, the opening vignettes and cases in the chapters depict real-world situations and problems managers face in their professional life. In addition to the concepts, the book also delves into the various academic perspectives that have evolved over time to provide the readers an integrated view of different approaches to management.
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Principles and Practice of Management, 1/e
For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
This content was accessible as of December 29, , and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. To download a. Before getting ahead of ourselves, just what is management, let alone principles of management?
Follett was an American social worker, consultant, and author of books on democracy, human relations, and management. He is credited with the original planning-organizing-leading-controlling framework P-O-L-C , which, while undergoing very important changes in content, remains the dominant management framework in the world. See H. For this reason, principles of management are often discussed or learned using a framework called P-O-L-C, which stands for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Managers are required in all the activities of organizations: budgeting, designing, selling, creating, financing, accounting, and artistic presentation; the larger the organization, the more managers are needed. Everyone employed in an organization is affected by management principles, processes, policies, and practices as they are either a manager or a subordinate to a manager, and usually they are both.
Managers do not spend all their time managing. Some employees perform only part of the functions described as managerial—and to that extent, they are mostly managers in limited areas. For example, those who are assigned the preparation of plans in an advisory capacity to a manager, to that extent, are making management decisions by deciding which of several alternatives to present to the management. However, they have no participation in the functions of organizing, staffing, and supervising and no control over the implementation of the plan selected from those recommended.
Even independent consultants are managers, since they get most things done through others—those others just happen to be their clients! Of course, if advisers or consultants have their own staff of subordinates, they become a manager in the fullest sense of the definition.
They must develop business plans; hire, train, organize, and motivate their staff members; establish internal policies that will facilitate the work and direct it; and represent the group and its work to those outside of the firm.
We tend to think about managers based on their position in an organization. This tells us a bit about their role and the nature of their responsibilities. The following figure summarizes the historic and contemporary views of organizations with respect to managerial roles. Ghoshal and C. In contrast to the traditional, hierarchical relationship among layers of management and managers and employees, in the contemporary view, top managers support and serve other managers and employees through a process called empowerment , just as the organization ultimately exists to serve its customers and clients.
Empowerment The process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in autonomous ways. In both the traditional and contemporary views of management, however, there remains the need for different types of managers. A second set of managers includes functional, team, and general managers.
Functional managers are responsible for the efficiency and effectiveness of an area, such as accounting or marketing. Supervisory or team managers are responsible for coordinating a subgroup of a particular function or a team composed of members from different parts of the organization. Sometimes you will hear distinctions made between line and staff managers. A line manager leads a function that contributes directly to the products or services the organization creates.
A staff manager , in contrast, leads a function that creates indirect inputs. For example, finance and accounting are critical organizational functions but do not typically provide an input into the final product or service a customer buys, such as a box of Tide detergent. Instead, they serve a supporting role. A project manager has the responsibility for the planning, execution, and closing of any project.
Project managers are often found in construction, architecture, consulting, computer networking, telecommunications, or software development. A general manager is someone who is responsible for managing a clearly identifiable revenue-producing unit, such as a store, business unit, or product line.
General managers typically must make decisions across different functions and have rewards tied to the performance of the entire unit i. General managers take direction from their top executives. Then they set specific goals for their own departments to fit in with the plan.
The general manager of production, for example, might have to increase certain product lines and phase out others. General managers must describe their goals clearly to their support staff. The supervisory managers see that the goals are met. Figure 1. Both sets of processes utilize human, financial, and material resources.
Of course, some managers are better than others at accomplishing this! There have been a number of studies on what managers actually do, the most famous of those conducted by Professor Henry Mintzberg in the early s. After following managers around for several weeks, Mintzberg concluded that, to meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles.
A role is an organized set of behaviors, and Mintzberg identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. As summarized in the following figure, the ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. The informational roles link all managerial work together.
The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The decisional roles make significant use of the information. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees, depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole.
The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. In the figurehead role, the manager represents the organization in all matters of formality.
The top-level manager represents the company legally and socially to those outside of the organization. The supervisor represents the work group to higher management and higher management to the work group. In the liaison role, the manager interacts with peers and people outside the organization. The top-level manager uses the liaison role to gain favors and information, while the supervisor uses it to maintain the routine flow of work.
The leader role defines the relationships between the manager and employees. The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a unique position to get information.
Thus, the three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work. In the monitor role, the manager receives and collects information. In the role of disseminator, the manager transmits special information into the organization. The top-level manager receives and transmits more information from people outside the organization than the supervisor. Thus, the top-level manager is seen as an industry expert, while the supervisor is seen as a unit or departmental expert.
The unique access to information places the manager at the center of organizational decision making. There are four decisional roles managers play. In the entrepreneur role, the manager initiates change. In the disturbance handler role, the manager deals with threats to the organization.
In the resource allocator role, the manager chooses where the organization will expend its efforts. In the negotiator role, the manager negotiates on behalf of the organization. The top-level manager makes the decisions about the organization as a whole, while the supervisor makes decisions about his or her particular work unit. The supervisor performs these managerial roles but with different emphasis than higher managers. Supervisory management is more focused and short-term in outlook.
Thus, the figurehead role becomes less significant and the disturbance handler and negotiator roles increase in importance for the supervisor.
Since leadership permeates all activities, the leader role is among the most important of all roles at all levels of management. On the one hand, managerial work is the lifeblood of most organizations because it serves to choreograph and motivate individuals to do amazing things. Managerial work is exciting, and it is hard to imagine that there will ever be a shortage of demand for capable, energetic managers. On the other hand, managerial work is necessarily fast-paced and fragmented, where managers at all levels express the opinion that they must process much more information and make more decisions than they could have ever possibly imagined.
So, just as the most successful organizations seem to have well-formed and well-executed strategies, there is also a strong need for managers to have good strategies about the way they will approach their work. This is exactly what you will learn through principles of management.
Managers are responsible for getting work done through others. We typically describe the key managerial functions as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
The definitions for each of these have evolved over time, just as the nature of managing in general has evolved over time. This evolution is best seen in the gradual transition from the traditional hierarchical relationship between managers and employees, to a climate characterized better as an upside-down pyramid, where top executives support middle managers and they, in turn, support the employees who innovate and fulfill the needs of customers and clients.
Through all four managerial functions, the work of managers ranges across ten roles, from figurehead to negotiator. While actual managerial work can seem challenging, the skills you gain through principles of management—consisting of the functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling—will help you to meet these challenges. The principles of management are drawn from a number of academic fields, principally, the fields of leadership, entrepreneurship, and strategy.
If management is defined as getting things done through others, then leadership The act of influencing others toward a goal. It means mobilizing others to want to struggle toward a common goal.
Principles of Practice Management
Authored By Prasad L. Publishing Year: Size: ISBN: MRP:
Principles of Practice Management
Concepts and principles for the management of electronic records, or records management theory is archival diplomatics December Records Management Journal 9 3 The foundation of our records management program is the Records Management Manual DePaul University 1 1. One of the longstanding principles of records and archives management is the concept of respect des fonds. The concept of records series is the basis for managing records.
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