abstraction in art and nature pdf

Abstraction In Art And Nature Pdf

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By Nathan Cabot Hale. This view of the Cumberland Mountains in Kentucky in early morning would be taken for granted by many people. But to the artist, many things are revealed: the age of the mountains and the direction of the thrust of their strata, the lines of erosion in relation to the plane of gravity, and the lines of levitation in the upward thrust of the trees and plants.

Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology , science and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.

Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology , science and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.

Abstract art, non-figurative art, non-objective art, and non-representational art, are closely related terms. They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning. Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be slight, partial, or complete.

Abstraction exists along a continuum. Even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is impossible. Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, can be said to be partially abstract. Total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable.

In geometric abstraction , for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities. Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive. But figurative and representational or realistic art often contain partial abstraction. Both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract.

Among the very numerous art movements that embody partial abstraction would be for instance fauvism in which color is conspicuously and deliberately altered vis-a-vis reality, and cubism , which alters the forms of the real life entities depicted. Much of the art of earlier cultures — signs and marks on pottery, textiles, and inscriptions and paintings on rock — used simple, geometric and linear forms which might have had a symbolic or decorative purpose.

A late Song painter named Yu Jian, adept to Tiantai buddhism , created a series of splashed ink landscapes that eventually inspired many Japanese Zen painters. His paintings show heavily misty mountains in which the shapes of the objects are barely visible and extremely simplified.

This type of painting was continued by Sesshu Toyo in his later years. On the left side of this painting is a pine tree in rocky soil, its branches laced with vines that extend in a disorderly manner to the right side of the painting in which a perfect circle probably made with help of a compass [9] floats in the void. The painting is a reflection of the Daoist metaphysics in which chaos and reality are complementary stages of the regular course of nature. In Tokugawa Japan, some Zen monk-painters created Enso , a circle who represents the absolute enlightenment.

Usually made in one spontaneous brush stroke, it became the paradigm of the minimalist aesthetic that guided part of the Zen painting. Patronage from the church diminished and private patronage from the public became more capable of providing a livelihood for artists.

Artistic independence for artists was advanced during the 19th century. An objective interest in what is seen , can be discerned from the paintings of John Constable , J M W Turner , Camille Corot and from them to the Impressionists who continued the plein air painting of the Barbizon school. Early intimations of a new art had been made by James McNeill Whistler who, in his painting Nocturne in Black and Gold: The falling Rocket , , placed greater emphasis on visual sensation than the depiction of objects.

Expressionist painters explored the bold use of paint surface, drawing distortions and exaggerations, and intense color. Expressionists produced emotionally charged paintings that were reactions to and perceptions of contemporary experience; and reactions to Impressionism and other more conservative directions of late 19th-century painting. The Expressionists drastically changed the emphasis on subject matter in favor of the portrayal of psychological states of being.

Although artists like Edvard Munch and James Ensor drew influences principally from the work of the Post-Impressionists they were instrumental to the advent of abstraction in the 20th century. Additionally in the late 19th century in Eastern Europe mysticism and early modernist religious philosophy as expressed by theosophist Mme. Blavatsky had a profound impact on pioneer geometric artists like Hilma af Klint and Wassily Kandinsky.

The mystical teaching of Georges Gurdjieff and P. Ouspensky also had an important influence on the early formations of the geometric abstract styles of Piet Mondrian and his colleagues in the early 20th century. With his expressive use of color and his free and imaginative drawing Henri Matisse comes very close to pure abstraction in French Window at Collioure , View of Notre-Dame , and The Yellow Curtain from The raw language of color as developed by the Fauves directly influenced another pioneer of abstraction, Wassily Kandinsky.

Although Cubism ultimately depends upon subject matter, it became, along with Fauvism , the art movement that directly opened the door to abstraction in the 20th century. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions.

Analytic cubism was jointly developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque , from about through The collage artists like Kurt Schwitters and Man Ray and others taking the clue from Cubism were instrumental to the development of the movement called Dada.

The Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti published the Manifesto of Futurism in , which later inspired artists such as Carlo Carra in Painting of Sounds, Noises and Smells and Umberto Boccioni Train in Motion , , to a further stage of abstraction that would, along with Cubism , profoundly influenced art movements throughout Europe.

Since the turn of the century, cultural connections between artists of the major European cities had become extremely active as they strove to create an art form equal to the high aspirations of modernism. Ideas were able to cross-fertilize by means of artist's books, exhibitions and manifestos so that many sources were open to experimentation and discussion, and formed a basis for a diversity of modes of abstraction.

During the Spring David Burliuk gave two lectures on cubism and planned a polemical publication, which the Knave of Diamonds was to finance.

He went abroad in May and came back determined to rival the almanac Der Blaue Reiter which had emerged from the printers while he was in Germany". From to many experimental works in the search for this 'pure art' had been created by a number of artists: Francis Picabia painted Caoutchouc , c.

And the search continued: The Rayist Luchizm drawings of Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov , used lines like rays of light to make a construction. Kasimir Malevich completed his first entirely abstract work, the Suprematist , Black Square , in Piet Mondrian was evolving his abstract language, of horizontal and vertical lines with rectangles of color, between and , Neo-Plasticism was the aesthetic which Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg and other in the group De Stijl intended to reshape the environment of the future.

As visual art becomes more abstract, it develops some characteristics of music: an art form which uses the abstract elements of sound and divisions of time. Wassily Kandinsky , himself an amateur musician, [32] [33] [34] was inspired by the possibility of marks and associative color resounding in the soul.

The idea had been put forward by Charles Baudelaire , that all our senses respond to various stimuli but the senses are connected at a deeper aesthetic level. Closely related to this, is the idea that art has The spiritual dimension and can transcend 'every-day' experience, reaching a spiritual plane. The Theosophical Society popularized the ancient wisdom of the sacred books of India and China in the early years of the century. It was in this context that Piet Mondrian , Wassily Kandinsky, Hilma af Klint and other artists working towards an 'objectless state' became interested in the occult as a way of creating an 'inner' object.

The universal and timeless shapes found in geometry : the circle, square and triangle become the spatial elements in abstract art; they are, like color, fundamental systems underlying visible reality. Many of the abstract artists in Russia became Constructivists believing that art was no longer something remote, but life itself.

The artist must become a technician, learning to use the tools and materials of modern production. Art into life! Varvara Stepanova and Alexandre Exter and others abandoned easel painting and diverted their energies to theatre design and graphic works. They argued that art was essentially a spiritual activity; to create the individual's place in the world, not to organize life in a practical, materialistic sense.

Many of those who were hostile to the materialist production idea of art left Russia. Kandinsky studied in Moscow then left for the Bauhaus.

By the mids the revolutionary period to when artists had been free to experiment was over; and by the s only socialist realism was allowed. This philosophy had grown from the ideas of the Arts and Crafts movement in England and the Deutscher Werkbund.

In the school was moved to Dessau and, as the Nazi party gained control in , The Bauhaus was closed. In an exhibition of degenerate art , 'Entartete Kunst' contained all types of avant-garde art disapproved of by the Nazi party.

Then the exodus began: not just from the Bauhaus but from Europe in general; to Paris, London and America. Paul Klee went to Switzerland but many of the artists at the Bauhaus went to America. During the s Paris became the host to artists from Russia, Germany, the Netherlands and other European countries affected by the rise of totalitarianism. The Polish Katarzyna Kobro applied mathematically based ideas to sculpture. The many types of abstraction now in close proximity led to attempts by artists to analyse the various conceptual and aesthetic groupings.

Criticized by Theo van Doesburg to be too indefinite a collection he published the journal Art Concret setting out a manifesto defining an abstract art in which the line, color and surface only, are the concrete reality. The first exhibition of British abstract art was held in England in Hepworth, Nicholson and Gabo moved to the St. Ives group in Cornwall to continue their 'constructivist' work. During the Nazi rise to power in the s many artists fled Europe to the United States.

The climate of freedom in New York allowed all of these influences to flourish. The art galleries that primarily had focused on European art began to notice the local art community and the work of younger American artists who had begun to mature. Certain artists at this time became distinctly abstract in their mature work. During this period Piet Mondrian's painting Composition No.

Some artists of the period defied categorization, such as Georgia O'Keeffe who, while a modernist abstractionist, was a pure maverick in that she painted highly abstract forms while not joining any specific group of the period. Eventually American artists who were working in a great diversity of styles began to coalesce into cohesive stylistic groups. The best known group of American artists became known as the Abstract expressionists and the New York School.

In New York City there was an atmosphere which encouraged discussion and there was new opportunity for learning and growing. Artists and teachers John D. Graham and Hans Hofmann became important bridge figures between the newly arrived European Modernists and the younger American artists coming of age. Mark Rothko , born in Russia, began with strongly surrealist imagery which later dissolved into his powerful color compositions of the early s.

The expressionistic gesture and the act of painting itself, became of primary importance to Jackson Pollock , Robert Motherwell , and Franz Kline. While during the s Arshile Gorky 's and Willem de Kooning 's figurative work evolved into abstraction by the end of the decade. New York City became the center, and artists worldwide gravitated towards it; from other places in America as well. Digital art , hard-edge painting , geometric abstraction , minimalism , lyrical abstraction , op art, abstract expressionism, color field painting, monochrome painting , assemblage , neo-Dada, shaped canvas painting, are a few directions relating to abstraction in the second half of the 20th century.

One socio-historical explanation that has been offered for the growing prevalence of the abstract in modern art — an explanation linked to the name of Theodor W. Adorno — is that such abstraction is a response to, and a reflection of, the growing abstraction of social relations in industrial society. Frederic Jameson similarly sees modernist abstraction as a function of the abstract power of money, equating all things equally as exchange-values.

Post-Jungians by contrast would see the quantum theories with their disintegration of conventional ideas of form and matter as underlying the divorce of the concrete and the abstract in modern art. Reproduced in Du "Cubisme" ,

Abstraction in Art and Nature

Most, but not all, abstract art is based on imagery from the real world. Johann Anton Eismann, Meerhaven. Work is in the public domain. This figurative or representational work from the seventeenth century depicts easily recognizable objects—ships, people, and buildings. But artistic independence was advanced during the nineteenth century, resulting in the emergence of abstract art. Three movements that contributed heavily to the development of these were Romanticism, Impressionism, and Expressionism.

Abstract art

Black Circle Kasimir Malevich. State Russian Museum, St Petersburg. By Georgia O'Keeffe. A wonderful autobiographical example of biomorphic abstraction. Composition With Blue And Yellow.

Abstraction in Art and Nature. Nathan Cabot Hale.

Abstract art

Questions over the meaning, origin, and necessity of abstract art have formed some of the central riddles of modern art. The answers to them can seem even more remote now that contemporary painting encompasses veins of both abstraction and figuration. This wasn't always the case: during the years when Abstract Expressionism flourished, figuration was shunned by the most advanced artists, and for reasons which date back to the late s.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Series B, Biological sciences. The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks.

Nature in Art

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Это кричала Соши Кута, его технический ассистент, подбегая к платформе с длиннющей распечаткой в руке. У нее был такой вид, словно она только что увидела призрак. - Джабба! - Соши задыхалась.  - Червь… я знаю, на что он запрограммирован! - Она сунула распечатку Джаббе.  - Я поняла это, сделав пробу системных функций. Мы выделили отдаваемые им команды - смотрите. Смотрите, на что он нацелен.

Ей было безразлично, чем именно он занят, лишь бы не заинтересовался включенным ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Пока этого, по-видимому, не случилось: цифра 16 в окне отсчета часов заставила бы его завопить от изумления. Сьюзан допивала уже третью чашку чая, когда это наконец произошло: компьютер пискнул. Пульс ее участился. На мониторе появилось символическое изображение конверта - это значило, что пришло сообщение по электронной почте. Сьюзан бросила быстрый взгляд на Хейла, но тот был всецело поглощен своим компьютером. Затаив дыхание, Сьюзан дважды щелкнула по конверту.

Ей в голову пришла и другая мысль - известно ли Хейлу, что Танкадо уже нет в живых. Сьюзан стала быстро закрывать файлы электронной почты Хейла, уничтожая следы своего посещения. Хейл ничего не должен заподозрить - .

В парке. Это было убийство - Ermordung.  - Беккеру нравилось это немецкое слово, означающее убийство. От него так и веяло холодом. - Ermordung.

 О Боже! - воскликнул.  - Что случилось. ГЛАВА 93 Причастие.

 Черт его дери! - почти беззвучно выругалась Сьюзан, оценивая расстояние до своего места и понимая, что не успеет до него добежать. Хейл был уже слишком близко. Она метнулась к буфету в тот момент, когда дверь со звуковым сигналом открылась, и, остановившись у холодильника, рванула на себя дверцу. Стеклянный графин на верхней полке угрожающе подпрыгнул и звонко опустился на место. - Проголодалась? - спросил Хейл, подходя к .

3 comments

Escalheuli1991

The exploration of nature in art can take endless forms, because nature provides us with such a vast wealth of inspiring phenomena.

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Harrison L.

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Noelino L.

Read Abstraction in Art and Nature by Nathan Cabot Hale with a free trial. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android.

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